Groundwater Evaluation and Management in Ain Sukhna, Egypt
AbstractAin Sukhna has become one of the most important economic areas in Egypt recently. As a result of this economic development, the demand for water has increased, with special emphasis on groundwater. Therefore, in this paper, several scenarios are assessed in order to reach the best scenario for groundwater management giving the opportunity to achieve the development needs of that region.Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) software is used to construct the solid model forsimulating the geometry of the aquifer layers. Then, a conceptual model is developed and calibrated in steady state case. The calibration results are satisfactory showing a good agreement between the calculated and observed heads. Finally, four scenarios are simulated with different pumping possibilities ranging from -25% to + 50% of the current pumping rates. The results show that it will be better if the current pumping rate is reduced by 25% which can make the drawdown values less than the other possibilities. It is also shown that the best recommended places to drill more wells can be in the east and south directions where the least drawdown values are found.
Abdallah A. (2007).''Monitoring Environmental Changes in El-Ain El-Sokhna Area, Gulf of Suez, Egypt''. Nine conference for geographical and GIS Department, Faculty of Arts, Alexandria University.
Shata A. (1955). ''Some remarks on the distribution of the Carboniferous Formations in Egypt'', Bulletin de lâ€™Institut du DÂ´esertdâ€™Egypte, Vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 241â€“247.
Kostandy A. B. (1959). â€œFacies maps for the study of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary basins of the Egyptian regionâ€. Proceedings of the 1st Arab Petroleum Congress, pp. 54â€“62, Cairo, Egypt.
Said R. (1962). ''The Geology of Egypt'', A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Said R. (1990). ''The Geology of Egypt'', A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
United Nation (UN) (1979). ''Structure plan for Suez Governorate'', Draft final report, V.II, groundwater resources investigations, Nor-consult A. S. and MECO.
Cement Suez Company (1981). ''Groundwater hydrology of wadi Badaa quantitative analysis, development and plan of operation for the supply of water requirements to the Suez Cement Company'', Internal Report.
Arabian Geophysics (1987). ''Drilling and well logging for the productive wells to for the Suez Cement Company'', Internal Report.
Mostafa A. S. (1993). ''Geophysical studies on the area of northwest of Suez'', M. Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
Helal A. M. A., El Sayed A. A., Mousa S. A. and El-Meliegy H. (1995).â€œSeismic facies analysis of Mesozoic rocks of the Cairo-Suez Districtâ€. Proceedings of the 13th Annual Meeting of the Egyptian Geophysical Society, pp. 59â€“80, Cairo, Egypt.
AbdAllatief A. T., Galal G. H. and Youssef A. M. A. (1997). â€œStructural and lithological impacts on the groundwater occurrences along wadi El Naqra-wadi Badaa area, (a case study)â€. Proceedings of the 15th Annual Meeting of the Egyptian Geophysical Society, pp. 107â€“124, Egyptian Geophysical Society.
AboulEla A. M. (2001). â€œSeismic response analysis of the foundation rocks of El-Ain Ei-Sukhana area Gulf of Suez Egypt as determined from seismic refraction techniqueâ€. Geological Survey of Egypt, Vol. 24, pp. 555â€“565.
El Houseiny M. (2002). ''Geophysical studies on the water bearing formations in Ain El-Sukhana area'', M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
Nasr I. M. (2004). ''Geophysical exploration for groundwater aquifers in Wadi Ghawaiba area, West Gulf of Suez'', Journal of Faculty of Educational, no. 29, pp. 131â€“145.
El Osta M. M., El Sheikh A. El. and Barseem M. S. (2010). ''Comparative Hydrological and Geoelectrical Study on the Quaternary Aquifer in the Deltas of Wadi Badaa and Ghweiba, El Ain El Sukhna Area, Northwest Suez Gulf, Egypt''. International Journal of Geophysics, Volume 2010, Article ID 585243, 15 pages.
Othman A. A., Abd El-Hafez Th. H., Youssef M. A. and Sabra M. E. (2013)."Shallow Geophysical Techniques for Groundwater Aquifer Exploration, Ain Alsokhona Area, West Gulf of Suez, Egypt", Researcher Science Journal 2013; 5(6): 30-41 (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Sultan S. A., Mohamed A. M. and Santos F. M. (2016). ''Geophysical Investigation in the Northwestern Part of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt'', Egyptian Journal of Petroleum (2017) 26, 457â€“475.
Khalaf S. and Abdalla M. G. (2014). ''Groundwater Modeling of Multi-Aquifer Systems Using GMS'', Hydrology Current Research, Volume 6, Issue 1, 1000184.
Eltarabily M. G., Negm A. M., Yoshimura C. and Takemura J. (2017). ''Groundwater Modeling in Agricultural Watershed under Different Recharge and Discharge Scenarios for Quaternary Aquifer Eastern Nile Delta, Egypt'', Environmental Modeling & Assessment. doi:10.1007/s10666-017-9577-z.
Bear J. (1979). "Hydraulics of Groundwater". McGraw-Hill, New York.
Rausch R. (2010). ''Groundwater Modelling: An introduction to groundwater flow and solute transport modelling with applications'', Technische Universitat Darmstadt.
Anderson M. and Woessner W. (1992).''Applied groundwater modeling. Simulation of Flow and Advective Transport''. San Diego, California: Academic Press Inc.
Reilly T. (2001). ''System and Boundary conceptualization in ground-water flow simulation. Techniques of water resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey''. Book 3, Applications of Hydraulics. Chapter B8. Department of Interior. U.S. Geological Survey.
Water Resources Research Institute (WRRI) (2013). ''Technical Reports of Upper, Middle and Lower Wells in Wadi Bada â€“ Ain Sukhna â€“ Egypt'', Internal Report.
NRCS (2009)b. Part 630, Hydrology National Engineering Handbook, Chapter 7: Hydrologic Soil Groups.
Cronshey R. (1986). ''Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds''. US Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, Engineering Division.
Gomaa M. A., Mohallel S. A. and Elsheikh A. E. (2016). ''Estimation of Recharge Quantity of the Fractured Basement Aquifer in the Southern Portion of Eastern Desert, Egypt; Critical Importance of the Hydrological and Chemical Criteria.'' Middle East Journal of Applied Sciences, 6, 759-773.
Aquaveo (2018). MODFLOW â€“ Automated Parameter Estimation. GMS 10.4 Tutorial.
How to Cite
- Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by any other publisher.
- It is also the authors responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular source are submitted with the necessary approval.
- The authors warrant that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required.
- The authors ensure that all the references carefully and they are accurate in the text as well as in the list of references (and vice versa).
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.