Prediction of Settlement of Shallow Footings on Granular Soils using Genetic Algorithm


  • Prasanth S


Foundation Settlement, Genetic Algorithm, Geotechnical Model, Granular Soils


In this paper, a genetic algorithm approach is used for predicting the settlement of shallow foundations on granular soils. The development and verification of the genetic model was done using a large database containing about 198 case histories from various published literatures. The results of the model obtained were compared with various empirical equations available for measuring settlement. The correlation of predicted datas with actual field measurements was determined and it was found out that the genetic algorithm approach can be used to fit a function to set of experimental data with a high degree of accuracy. The equation for settlement thus obtained connecting settlement and its contributing factors can be used in predicting settlements for new cases that were not used for the development of the genetic model.



A. R. S. S. Bazaraa, ‘‘Use of the standard penetration test for estimating settlements of shallow foundations on sandâ€, PhD thesis, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, 1967.

Ali R. Zolfaghari , Andrew C. Heath, Paul F. McCombie, “Simple genetic algorithm search for critical non-circular failure surface in slope stability analysisâ€, Journal of Computers and Geotechnics 32 (2005) 139–152, 2004.

Bowles, Joseph, “Foundation Analysis and Designâ€, 2nd edn, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977.

C. Chan and L. Zhan, “Optimization of Pile Groups Using Hybrid Genetic Algorithms.†J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 135(4), 497–505, 2009.

C. M. Chan, L. M. Zhang, and T. Jenny, â€Optimization of Pile Groups Using Hybrid Genetic Algorithms.†Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering., 135(4), pp 497–505, 2009.

D. J. Douglas, State-of-the-art, Ground Engineering, Vol 19, pp 2-6, 1986.

E. Momeni, E. Nazir, D. Jahed Armaghani, H. Maizir, “Prediction of pile bearing capacity using a hybrid genetic algorithm-based ANNâ€, J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng.,137(5), 462-468, 2014.

G. G. Meyerhof. “Shallow foundationsâ€, Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, ASCE, Vol. 91(SM2), pp. 21–31, 1965.

H. E. Wahls.â€Settlement analysis for shallow foundations on sandâ€, Proc., 3rd Int. Geotechnical Engineering Conf., Cairo, Egypt, 7–28, 1997.

H. Shahnazari, M. A. Shahin, M. A. Tutunchian, “Evolutionary-based approaches for settlement prediction of shallow foundations on cohesionless soilsâ€, International journal of civil engineering, No. 4, Vol. 7, pp. 236-247, 2013.

J. B. Burland, and M. C. Burbidge, “Settlement of foundations on sand and gravelâ€, Proc., Inst. Civ. Eng., Part I, 78(6), 1325–1381, 1985.

J. Koza, “Genetic programming on the programming of computers by means of natural selectionâ€, Cambridge (MA): MIT Press, 813 p, 1992.

J. L. Briaud, and R. Gibbens ‘‘Behavior of five large spread footings in sandâ€, Journal of Geotechnical & Geoenvironmental Engineering, 125(9), 787–796, 1999.

Lijie Cui, Daichao Sheng, “Genetic algorithms in probabilistic finite element analysis of geotechnical problemsâ€, Journal of Computers and Geotechnics 32 (2005) 555–563, 2005.

M. A. Shahin, H. R. Maier, M. B. Jaksa. “Predicting settlement of shallow foundations using neural networksâ€, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, No. 9, Vol. 128, pp. 785–793, 2002.

M. C. Burbidge, “A case study review of settlements on granular soilâ€, MSc. thesis, Imperial College of Science and Technology, Univ. of London, London, 1982.

M. Picornell, and E. Del Monte, “Prediction of settlement of cohesive granular soilsâ€, Proc., Measured Performance of Shallow Found., Nashville, Tenn., 55–72, 1988.

M. Rezania, A. Javadi. “A new genetic programming model for predicting settlement of shallow foundationsâ€, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, No. 12, Vol. 44, pp. 1462-1473, 2007.

Paul McCombie, Philip Wilkinson, “The use of simple genetic algorithm in finding the critical factor of safety in slope stability analysisâ€, Computers and Geotechnics,Volume 29, Issue 8, Dec, pp 699–714, 2002.

S. Levasseur,Y. Malécot, Y. Boulon and E. Flavigny, “Soil parameter identification using a genetic algorithmâ€, International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 189–213, 2008.


How to Cite

S, P. (2015). Prediction of Settlement of Shallow Footings on Granular Soils using Genetic Algorithm. Asian Journal of Engineering and Technology, 3(4). Retrieved from