Adaptive Electrocardiogram Steganography Based on 2D Approach with Predetermined Rules
Keywords:Data Hiding, ECG Steganography, 2D Bit-embedding/-extraction Approach, Real-time Applications
AbstractBased on two-dimensional (2D) bit-embedding/-extraction approach, we propose a simple data hiding for electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. The patientâ€™s sensitive (diagnostic) data can be efficiently hidden into 2D ECG host via the proposed decision rules. The performance of the proposed method using various sizes of the host bundles was demonstrated. Simulations have confirmed that the average SNR of the proposed method with a host bundle of size 3 Â´ 3 is superior to that of existing techniques, while our payload is competitive to theirs. In addition, our method with a host bundle of size 2 Â´ Â 2 generated the best SNR values, while that with a host bundle of size 4 Â´ Â 4 provided the largest payload among the compared methods. Moreover, the proposed method provides robustness performance better than existing ECG steganography. Namely, our method provides high hiding capacity and robust against the attacks such as cropping, inversion, scaling, translation, truncation, and Gaussian noise-addition attacks. Since the proposed method is simple, it can be employed in real-time applications such as portable biometric devices.
I. Cox, M. Miller, J. Bloom, J. Fridrich, and T. Kalker, â€œDigital Watermarking and Steganography,â€ 2nd Ed., Morgan Kaufmann, USA, 2007.
E. Eielinska, W. Mazurczyk, and K. Szczypiorski, â€œTrends in steganography,â€ Comm. of the ACM, vol. 57, pp. 86-95, 2014.
S. Liu, Z. Pan, and H. Song, â€œDigital image watermarking method based on DCT and fractal encoding,â€ IET Image Proc., vol. 11, pp. 815-821, 2017.
K.M. Hosny and M.M. Darwish, â€œInvariant image watermarking using accurate Polar harmonic transform,â€ Computer and Electrical Engineering, vol. 62, pp. 429-447, 2017.
C.Y. Hsiao, M.F. Tsai, and C.Y. Yang, â€œSimple and robust watermarking scheme based on square-root-modulus technique,â€ Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol. 77, pp. 30419-30435, 2018.
Hedieh Sajedi, â€œApplications of data hiding techniques in medical and healthcare systems: a survey,â€ Network Modeling Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics, doi: 10.1007/s13721-018-0169-x, 2018.
H.J. Shiu, B.S. Lin, C.H. Huang, P.Y. Chiang, and C.L. Lei, â€œPreserving privacy of online digital physiological signals using blind and reversible steganography,â€ Computer Method and Programs in Biomedicine, vol. 151, pp. 159-170, 2017.
L.T. Cheng and C.Y. Yang, â€œHigh-performance Reversible Electrocardiogram Steganography Based on Fast Discrete Cosine Transform with Coefficients Offset,â€ 2019 Global Conference on Engineering and Applied Science (GCEAS 2019), July 16-18, Sapporo, Japan, 2019.
S. Bhalerao, I.A. Ansari, A. Kumar, D. Kumar, and D.K. Jain, â€œA reversible and multipurpose ECG data hiding technique for telmedicine applications,â€ Pattern Recogition Letter, vol. 125, pp. 463-473, 2019.
A. Swierkosz and P. Augustyniak, â€œOptimizing wavelet ECG watermarking to maintain measurement performance according to industrial standard,â€ Sensors, vol. 18, doi: 10.3390/s18103401, 2018.
S.T. Chen, Y.J. Guo, H.N. Huang, W.M. Kung, K.K. Tseng, and S.Y. Tu, â€œHiding patients confidential data in the ECG signal via transform-domain quantization,â€ Journal of Medical Systems, vol. 38, doi: 10.1007/s10916-014-0054-9, 2014.
A. Ibaida and I. Khalil, â€œWavelet-based ECG steganography for protecting patient confidential information in point-of-care systems,â€ IEEE T. Biomedical Eng., vol. 60, pp. 3322-3330, 2013.
S.E. Jero, P. Ramu, and S. Ramakrishnan, â€œDiscrete wavelet transform and singular value decomposition based ECG steganography for secured patient information transmission,â€ Journal of Medical Systems, vol. 38:132, doi: 10.1007/s10916-014-0132-z, 2014.
S.E. Jero, P. Ramu, and S. Ramakrishnan, â€œECG steganography using curvelet transform,â€ Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, vol. 22, pp. 161-169, 2015.
C.Y. Yang and W.F. Wang, â€œEffective electrocardiogram steganography based on coefficient alignment,â€ Journal of Medical Systems, vol. 40, DOI: 10.1007/s10916-015-0426-9, 2016.
S.E. Jero, P. Ramu, and S. Ramakrishnan, â€œImperceptability-robustness tradeoff studies for ECG steganography using continuous ant colony optimization,â€ Expert Systems With Applications, vol. 49, pp. 123-135, 2016.
C.Y. Yang and W.F. Wang, â€œHigh-capacity ECG steganography with smart offset coefficients,â€ The 13th Int. Conf. on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing (IIH-MSP 2017), Aug. 12-15, Matsue, Japan, 2017.
C.Y. Yang and W.F. Wang, â€œAn improved high-capacity ECG steganography with smart offset coefficients,â€ The 14th Int. Conf. on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing (IIH-MSP 2018), Nov. 26-28, Sendai, Japan, 2018.
G.B. Moody and R.G. Mark, â€œThe impact of the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database,â€ IEEE Eng. in Medical and Biol., vol. 20, pp. 45-50, 2001.
How to Cite
- Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by any other publisher.
- It is also the authors responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular source are submitted with the necessary approval.
- The authors warrant that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required.
- The authors ensure that all the references carefully and they are accurate in the text as well as in the list of references (and vice versa).
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.