The State of Nascent Indonesian Entrepreneurs
Keywords:Nascent Entrepreneurs, GEM, Indonesia
This study examines whether internal or external factors that influence Nascent Indonesian Entrepreneurs (NIE) require more support. Findings can help the government provide effective policies to support NIE. Data were collected using the Global Entrepreneurship Monitoring (GEM) questionnaire, completed by 1,015 respondents from 23 provinces in Indonesia who are nascent entrepreneurs from the Adult Population Survey (APS). Judgements from 37 Indonesian experts from the National Expert Survey (NES) were also collected. The study was conducted using mixed methods, with quantitative research (i.e., descriptive statistics), qualitative research (i.e., focus-group discussion), and a literature review. Internal factors of NIE show good results, with high perceived opportunities, self-efficacy, and role models, and low fear of failure. However, some external factors, such as government policy and education entrepreneurship, should be improved. Since this study focuses on the big picture of NIE, there were no age, gender, or demographic differences. This study is first to support NIE by researching the entrepreneurial ecosystem.
Amatucci, F. M., & Crawley, D.C. (2011). Financial Self-Efficacy Among Women Entrepreneurs. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 3(1), 23â€“37.
Berger, P. K. (2014). The Role of Fear For Entrepreneurial Venture Creationâ€”Causes of Failure Before and After Foundation [Dissertation]. Bremen, Germany: University Bremen.
Bosma, N., Hessels, J., Schutjens, V., Van Praag, M., & Verheul, I. (2011). Entrepreneurship and Role Models (Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper; No. TI2011-61/3). Amsterdam/Rotterdam, the Netherlands: Tinbergen Institute.
Bygrave, W. D. (2010). Entrepreneurship (3rd edition). Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons.
Cacciotti, G., & Hayton, J. C. (2014). Fear of Failure and Entrepreneurship: A Review and Direction for Future Research. [ERC Research Paper]. Coventry, UK: Warwick Business School & Enterprise Research Centre (ERC).
Davidsson, P. (2006). Nascent Entrepreneurship: Empirical Studies and Developments. Foundation and Trends in Entrepreneurship, 2(1), 1â€“76.
Davidsson, P., & Honig, B. (2013). The Role of Social and Human Capital Among Nascent Entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(3), 301â€“331.
Dempsey, D., & Jennings, J. (2014). Gender and Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy: A Learning Perspective. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 6(1), 28â€“49.
Eria & Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2014). Promotion of Entrepreneurial Education. Jakarta, Indonesia: Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia
Feillard, G. N. (2016, October 6). Indonesia's New Entrepreneurs, Free of Old Patronage Circles. Retrieved on 11-16-2017 from http://www.straitstimes.com/opinion/indonesias-new-entrepreneurs-free-of-old-patronage-circles
GEM (2017). About GEM. Retrieved on 11-16-2017 from http://www.gemconsortium.org/about/news
Karimi, S., Biemans, H. J., Lans, T., Chizari, M., & Mulder, M. (2014). Effects of Role Models and Gender on Studentsâ€™ Entrepreneurial Intentions. European Journal of Training and Development, 38(8), 694â€“727.
Kvedaraite, N. (2014). Reasons and Obstacles to Starting a Business: Experience of Students of Lithuanian Higher Education Institutions. Journal of Contemporary Management, 1(19), 1â€“16.
Lafuente, E. M. & Vaillant, Y. (2013). Age Driven Influence of Role-Models on Entrepreneurship in a Transition Economy. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 20(1), 181â€“203.
LukeÅ¡, M., & Zouhar, J. (2016). The Causes of Early-Stage Entrepreneurial Discontinuance. Praque Economic Papers, 25(1), 19-36.
Mason, C. & Brown, R. (2014). Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and Growth Oriented Entrepreneurship [Paper]. The Hague, the Netherlands: OECD & LEED.
Mateo, J. M., Solves, I. M., & GÃ³mez Gras, J. M. (2013). Influence of the Economic Cycle on the Determinants of Nascent Entrepreneurial Activity. An Empirical Analysis of the Spanish Case. Investigaciones Reginales, 26(1), 19-45.
Matlay, H. (2008). The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Entrepreneurial Outcomes. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 15(2), 382â€“396.
Nawangpalupi, C. B., Pawitan, G., Gunawan, A., Widyarini, M., Putri, F. E., & Iskandarsjah, T.(2016). Entrepreneurship in Indonesia: Condition and Opportunities for Growth and Sustainability. Bandung, Indonesia: Unpar Press.
Peake, W. O., & Marshall, M. I. (2006). What Do We Really Know About Entrepreneurs? An Analysis of Nascent Entrepreneurs in Indiana [Working Paper # 06-14]. West Lafayette (IN): Purdue University: Department of Agricultural Economics.
Saade, F. P. (2012). Towards Understanding Nascent Entrepreneurship: A Theory of Planned Behavior Perspective [Thesis]. Helsinki, Finland: Aalto University, School of Business.
Shamsudin, S. F., Mamun, A. A., Nawi, N. C., Nasir, N. A., & Zakaria, M. N. (2016). Policies and Practices for Entrepreneurial Education in Malyasia: A Review. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 7(2), 36â€“41.
Valerio, A., Parton, B., & Robb, A. (2014). Entrepreneurship Education and Training Programs Around the World: Dimensions for Success. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Wagner, J. (2004). Nascent Entrepreneurs [Discussion Paper Series]. Retrieved on 11-16-2017 from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d5c8/417f5f1c8035abf0a01fd21cc104d72a6f88.pdf
ZiemiaÅ„ski, P., & ZiÄ™ba, K. (2017). Nascent Entrepreneurship and the Role of Self-Efficacy. PrzedsiÄ™biorstwo we wspÃ³Å‚czesnej gospodarceâ€”teoria i praktyka 1, 27â€“36.
How to Cite
- Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by any other publisher.
- It is also the authors responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular source are submitted with the necessary approval.
- The authors warrant that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required.
- The authors ensure that all the references carefully and they are accurate in the text as well as in the list of references (and vice versa).
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).
- The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.