Is Physical Activity, Functional Ability, and Depression Related to The Elderly Quality of Life in East Jakarta?
Keywords:quality of life, physical activity, functional ability, depression, elderly
Introduction: The global population is aging, and the number of elderly people continues to increase worldwide. The increase in the elderly population is followed by an increase in problems due to degenerative processes that have an impact on the quality of life of the elderly. Several factors that affect the quality of life of the elderly include physical activity, functional abilities, and depression.
Methodology: The study design was cross-sectional. Based on the quota sampling in East Jakarta, 180 elderly were selected as the sample. WHOQOL-BREF was used to measured quality of life of independent variables. GPAQ, IADL-Barthel Index, GDS were used to measure dependent variables of physical activity, functional ability and depression, respectively. The Data collection method was an interview using a questionnaire. Data analysis includes univariate and bivariate analysis using Chi-Square test and multivariate analysis using Logistic Statistics test using Enter method.
Results: Most of the elderly have a good quality of life (77.2%). There was a significant corellation between physical activity, functional ability, depression and the quality of life of the elderly. The most important factor was physical activity and the P values and OR were 0.014 and OR 3.409, respectively after being controlled by the variables of functional ability and depression.
Conclusion: The finding indicated physical activity was the key factor of quality of life. In order to support elderly to exercise regularly and safely, cooperation between local governments, communities, and families is needed to develop interesting exercise/leisure sport programs and provide support facilities for the elderly.
Keywords— quality of life, physical activity, functional ability, depression, elderly
K. S. and M. S. Shilpa Amarya and Additional, “Ageing process and physiological changes,” Intech, p. 13, 2012, doi: 10.5772/intechopen.76249.
Word Health Organization, “Ageing and health,” Word Health Organization, 2018. http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ageing-and-health (accessed Nov. 11, 2018).
A. Santika, “Lanjut usia dalam perspektif hukum dan HAM,” Bul. Jendela Data dan Inf. Kesehat., vol. 1, pp. 29–32, 2013.
United Nation, World Population Ageing 2019: Highlights (ST/ESA/SER.A/430). Official. 2019.
World Health Organization, “World Report on Ageing and Health,” Geneva, 2015.
A. Raggi et al., “Determinants of quality of life in ageing populations: Results from a cross-sectional study in Finland, Poland and Spain,” PLoS One, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 1–17, 2016, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0159293.
X. J. Lin, I. M. Lin, and S. Y. Fan, “Methodological issues in measuring health-related quality of life,” Tzu Chi Medical Journal, vol. 25, no. 1. No longer published by Elsevier, pp. 8–12, Mar. 01, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.tcmj.2012.09.002.
G. Netuveli and D. Blane, “Quality of life in older ages,” British Medical Bulletin, vol. 85, no. 1. Oxford Academic, pp. 113–126, Mar. 01, 2008, doi: 10.1093/bmb/ldn003.
T. T. Su, M. Azzani, A. P. Adewale, N. Thangiah, R. Zainol, and H. Majid, “Physical activity and health-related quality of life among low-income adults in Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur,” J. Epidemiol., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 43–49, 2019, doi: 10.2188/jea.JE20170183.
G. C. Vagetti, V. C. Barbosa Filho, N. B. Moreira, V. de Oliveira, O. Mazzardo, and W. de Campos, “Association between physical activity and quality of life in the elderly: A systematic review, 2000-2012,” Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 76–88, 2014, doi: 10.1590/1516-4446-2012-0895.
E. McAuley, J. F. Konopack, R. W. Motl, K. S. Morris, S. E. Doerksen, and K. R. Rosengren, “Physical activity and quality of life in older adults: Influence of health status and self-efficacy,” Ann. Behav. Med., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 99–103, Feb. 2006, doi: 10.1207/s15324796abm3101_14.
M. Trajkov, F. Eminovic, S. Radovanovic, M. Dopsaj, D. Pavlovic, and D. Kljajic, “Quality of life and depression in elderly persons engaged in physical activities,” Vojnosanit. Pregl. Med. Pharm. J. Serbia, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 177–184, 2018, doi: 10.2298/vsp160329336t.
G. Bottan, E. P. De Morais, J. F. Schneider, C. Trentini, and E. Heldt, “Determinants of quality of life in elderly patients of a psychosocial care center in Brazil,” Issues Ment. Health Nurs., vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 181–188, 2014, doi: 10.3109/01612840.2013.849782.
M. S. Soósová, “Determinants of quality of life in the elderly,” Cent. Eur. J. Nurs. Midwifery, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 484–493, 2016, doi: 10.15452/CEJNM.2016.07.0019.
J. Rosińczuk and A. Kołtuniuk, “The influence of depression, level of functioning in everyday life, and illness acceptance on quality of life in patients with parkinson’s disease: A preliminary study,” Neuropsychiatr. Dis. Treat., vol. 13, pp. 881–887, Mar. 2017, doi: 10.2147/NDT.S132757.
S. K. Lwanga and S. Lemeshow, Sample Size Determination in Health Studies: A Practical Manual. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1991.
World Health Organization, “WHOQOL-BREF Introduction, Administration, Scoring and Generic Version of the Assessment.” World Health Organization, Geneva, 1996.
Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, “Instrumen Pengkajian Paripurna Pasien Geriatri (P3G).” Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, Jakarta, 2017, [Online]. Available: http://kesga.kemkes.go.id/images/pedoman/INSTRUMEN P3G.pdf.
J. A. Yesavage and J. I. Sheikh, “9/Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS): Recent Evidence and Development of a Shorter Version,” Clin. Gerontol., vol. 5, no. 1–2, pp. 165–173, Nov. 1986, doi: 10.1300/J018v05n01_09.
World Health Organization, “Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) Analysis Guide,” World Health Organization. Geneva, pp. 1–22, 2012, [Online]. Available: http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:Global+Physical+Activity+Questionnaire+(GPAQ)+Analysis+Guide#1.
World Health Organization, Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2010.
F. I. Mahoney and D. W. Barthel, “Functional evaluation: The Barthel index,” Md. State Med. J., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 61–5, Feb. 1965, [Online]. Available: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14258950.
S. P. Hastono, Analisa Data Bidang Kesehatan. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia, 2016.
B. G. Berger, “Physical activity and quality of life: Key considerations,” in Handbook of Sport Psychology, 3rd ed., G. Tenenbaum and R. C. Eklund, Eds. John Wiley & Sons, 2007.
T. Boggatz, “Quality of life in old age - a concept analysis,” Int. J. Older People Nurs., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 55–69, Mar. 2016, doi: 10.1111/opn.12089.
S. De, R. Nath Roy, K. Mitra, D. Kumar Das, and A. Dan, “Physical activities and quality of life among elderly population in urban slum of Bardhaman Municipality, West Bengal,” IOSR J. Dent. Med. Sci. e-ISSN, vol. 17, pp. 67–73, 2018, doi: 10.9790/0853-1705126773.
World Health Organization, “The Constitution of the World Health Organization.” World Health Organization, New York, 1946.
The WHOQOL Group, “The World Health Organization quality of life assessment (WHOQOL): Position paper from the World Health Organization,” Soc. Sci. Med., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 1403–1409, Nov. 1995, doi: 10.1016/0277-9536(95)00112-K.
C. E. Garber et al., “Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: Guidance for prescribing exercise,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 1334–1359, Jul. 2011, doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318213fefb.
C. Kisner, L. A. Colby, and J. Borstad, Therapeutic Exercise : Foundations and Techniques, Seventh ed. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company, 2018.
Kementerian Kesehatan RI, “Aktivitas Fisik Untuk Lansia,” 2018. https://promkes.kemkes.go.id/?p=8816 (accessed Oct. 13, 2020).
A. Clifford, T. B. Rahardjo, S. Bandelow, and E. Hogervorst, “A cross-sectional study of physical activity and health-related quality of life in an elderly Indonesian cohort,” Br. J. Occup. Ther., vol. 77, no. 9, pp. 451–456, 2014, doi: 10.4276/030802214X14098207541036.
M. Slimani, R. Ramirez-Campillo, A. Paravlic, L. D. Hayes, N. L. Bragazzi, and M. Sellami, “The effects of physical training on quality of life, aerobic capacity, and cardiac function in older patients with heart failure: A meta-analysis,” Front. Physiol., vol. 9, 2018, doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.01564.
C. Matz-Costa, E. Besen, J. Boone James, and M. Pitt-Catsouphes, “Differential impact of multiple levels of productive activity engagement on psychological well-being in middle and later life,” Gerontologist, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 277–289, Apr. 2014, doi: 10.1093/geront/gns148.
J. A. Liffiton, S. Horton, J. Baker, and P. L. Weir, “Successful aging: How does physical activity influence engagement with life?,” European Review of Aging and Physical Activity, vol. 9, no. 2. BioMed Central, pp. 103–108, Apr. 04, 2012, doi: 10.1007/s11556-012-0098-0.
L. M. Ramocha, Q. A. Louw, and M. D. Tshabalala, “Quality of life and physical activity among older adults living in institutions compared to the community,” South African J. Physiother., vol. 73, no. 1, 2017, doi: 10.4102/sajp.v73i1.342.
U. Svantesson, J. Jones, K. Wolbert, and M. Alricsson, “Impact of physical activity on the self-perceived quality of life in non-frail older adults,” J. Clin. Med. Res., vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 585–593, Jun. 2015, doi: 10.14740/jocmr2021w.
A. Oliveira, P. Nossa, and A. Mota-Pinto, “Assessing functional capacity and factors determining functional decline in the elderly: A Cross-sectional study - Avaliação da capacidade funcional e fatores determinantes do declínio funcional em idosos: Um estudo transversal,” Acta Med. Port., vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 654–660, Oct. 2019, doi: 10.20344/amp.11974.
Z. Milanović, S. Pantelić, N. Trajković, G. Sporiš, R. Kostić, and N. James, “Age-related decrease in physical activity and functional fitness among elderly men and women,” Clin. Interv. Aging, vol. 8, pp. 549–556, 2013, doi: 10.2147/CIA.S44112.
D. Talarska, S. Tobis, M. Kotkowiak, M. Strugała, J. Stanisławska, and K. Wieczorowska-Tobis, “Determinants of quality of life and the need for support for the elderly with good physical and mental functioning,” Med. Sci. Monit., vol. 24, pp. 1604–1613, 2018, doi: 10.12659/MSM.907032.
S. Z. Tseng and R. H. Wang, “Quality of life and related factors among elderly nursing home residents in Southern Taiwan,” Public Health Nurs., vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 304–311, Sep. 2001, doi: 10.1046/j.1525-1446.2001.00304.x.
D. Bhowmik, K. P. Sampath Kumar, S. Srivastava, S. Paswan, and A. S. Dutta, “Depression-symptoms, causes, medications and therapies,” Pharma Innov. J., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 41–55, 2012, [Online]. Available: https://www.thepharmajournal.com/archives/2012/vol1issue3/PartA/5.pdf.
R. Arena et al., “Assessment of functional capacity in clinical and research settings: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association committee on exercise, rehabilitation, and prevention of the council on clinical cardiology and the council on cardiovascular nursing,” Circulation, vol. 116, no. 3. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp. 329–343, Jul. 17, 2007, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.184461.
F. M. F. Xavier, M. P. T. Ferraz, N. Marc, N. U. Escosteguy, and E. H. Moriguchi, “Elderly people’s definition of quality of life,” Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 31–39, 2003, doi: 10.1590/S1516-44462003000100007.
M. Sertel, S. A. Arslan, F. Kurtoğlu, and T. Ş. Yıldırım, “Physical activity, depression and quality of life in aging process,” Biomed. Res., vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 4165–4170, 2017.
H. Y. Yen and L. J. Lin, “Quality of life in older adults: Benefits from the productive engagement in physical activity,” J. Exerc. Sci. Fit., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 49–54, Aug. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.jesf.2018.06.001.
S. K. Dewi, “Level aktivitas fisik dan kualitas hidup warga lanjut usia,” Media Kesehat. Masy. Indones., vol. 14, no. 3, p. 241, 2018, doi: 10.30597/mkmi.v14i3.4604.
A. M. Imoto, M. S. Peccin, and V. F. M. Trevisani, “Quadriceps strengthening exercises are effective in improving pain, function and quality of life in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee,” Acta Ortop. Bras., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 174–179, 2012, doi: 10.1590/S1413-78522012000300008.
S. M. Phillips, T. R. Wójcicki, and E. McAuley, “Physical activity and quality of life in older adults: An 18-month panel analysis,” Qual. Life Res., vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 1647–1654, 2013, doi: 10.1007/s11136-012-0319-z.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Ratu, Dwi Agustina, Erna, Azis
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
- Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by any other publisher.
- It is also the authors responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular source are submitted with the necessary approval.
- The authors warrant that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required.
- The authors ensure that all the references carefully and they are accurate in the text as well as in the list of references (and vice versa).
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.