The Biomechanical Properties of Rattan Cane in the Design and Fabrication of Prosthetic Foot
Keywords:Rattan Cane, Biomechanical Properties, Fabrication, Prosthetic Foot,
In designing prosthetics for amputees, quality and quantity of materials determine device tensile, flexural, extension and compression strength as well as energy distribution when load is applied. Biomechanical properties contribute in combination to any device longevity and resolution force effect to gait expression. Four different dry rattan canes were sampled and subjected to biomechanical analysis, and sample 3 had highest tensile strength with ultimate tensile strength of 11.5N/mm2 revealed when load at break of 668.18N applied, and modulus 1033.90MPa with ductility of 7.33mm were resultant. While average ultimate tensile strength of 8.68N/mm2 was sustained by load at break of 396.66N, modulus of 1119MPa and ductility of 9.5mm was confirmed of rattan cane. Highest flexural strength of 34.43N/mm2 resulted from load at break of 32.82N, modulus 255.65MPa and elongation of 66.81mm was dictated of sample 3, and an average Flexural strength of 26.4 N/mm2 occurred when load at break of 16.04N, modulus 229.16MPa produced elongation (ductility) of 55.1mm on rattan cane. The highest load resistance was shown by sample 3 at compressive strength of 8.79MPa when on load at break of 330N, modulus 622.53MPa resulted. While sample 4 had the highest compressive strength of 9.94MPa when load break at 309N exerted modulus 283.14MPa. Gait analysis revealed terminal swing and heel strike of chosen height 8cm and deformity 0cm while early and mid stance of 0.3cm and 7.7cm were respectively for deformity and height.
Klasson B.L., “Carbon fiber and fibril lamination in prosthetics and orthotics: some basic theory and practical advice for the practitioner”, POI, vol.19, pp. 74-91, 1995.
Alam M and Y. Furukawa, “Cane Enterprises as Family business in Bangladesh: A case Study”, Electronic journal of Family Business Studies, vol. 3, no. 2, 2009.
Lucas, E.B. and B.I.O. Dahunsi, “Harvesting, processing and utilization of rattan canes in Western Nigeria”, Journal of Southern African Forestry, vol. 202, pp. 37–44, 2004a.
Abasolo WP., Yoshida M., Yamamoto H and Okuyama T., “Influence of cell type on the thermal softening of Calamus merrillii Becc”, Journal of International Association of Wood Anatomist, vol. 26, pp. 363–374, 2005.
A O. Olorunnisola, A. Pitman, H. Manfield-William, Hydration characteristics of cement-bonded composites made from rattan cane and coconut husk, Journal Bomboo and Rattan, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 193-201, 2005.
Karki, J. B. S and Karki M., “Bamboo production, use and trade in Eastern Nepal: A Case Study, In The Role of Bamboo, Rattan, Medicinal Plants in Mountain Development”, Proceedings of the Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Nepal. INBAR Technical Report, no. 15, pp. 144–155, 1996.
Blazkova L and Jenicek V., “Rattan production and trade”, Agricultura Tropica
etSubtropica, vol. 39, pp. 1-7, 2006.
Meitram, B and G. J. Sharma, “Rattan resources of Manipur ; species diversity”, Journal of Bamboo and Rattan, vol. 4, pp. 399–419, 2005.
Arinana Hinsui J., Ignatius, B., Kronseder K., K¨arkk¨ ainen, J., Pingoud P., and Sandra E., “Non timber forest products in Northern Thai-land”, 2008 Available at: http://www.mm.helsinki.ﬁ/MMEKO/VITRI/forrsa/RE2Course%20and%20workshop%20proceedings/report/Group5 Report. pdf accessed July 4, 2009.
Widayati A., Jone S and Carlisle B., “Accessibility Factors and Conservation Forest Designation Affecting Rattan Cane Harvesting in Lambusango Forest, Buton, Indonesia”, Hum Ecol., vol. 38, pp. 731-746, 2010.
Belcher, B., “A production to consumption systems approach: lessons from the bamboo and rattan sectors in Asia. In: E. Wollenberg and A. Ingles (eds). Incomes from the forest: methods for the development and conservation of forest products for local communities”, CIFOR/IUCN, 1999.
Burkill I. H., “A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula. Crown Agents”, London, vol. 2, 1935.
Corner, E.J.H., “The Natural History of Palms”, Wiedenfield and Nicolson (eds)., London, 1966.
Dransfield, J., “Traditional uses of rattan. In: Wan”, R.W.M., Journal, 1992d.
Dransfield, J., “A manual of the rattans of the Malay Peninsula”, Malayan Forest 1979.
Sunderland, T.C.H., “The rattans of Rio Muni, Equatorial Guinea: utilisation, biology and distribution”, Report to the Proyecto Conservación y Utilización Regional de los Ecosistemas Forestales (CUREF) - Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo – Proyecto, No.6 - ACP-EG 020. 1998.
Johnson, D.V., Non-wood forest products: tropical palms. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, 1997.
Jensen J.S and Raab W., “Clinical testing of vulcanized Jaipur rubber feet for transtibial amputees in low-income countries”, P&O int, vol. 30, issue 3, pp. 225-236, 2006.
Klute G.K, Kallfelz C.F and Czemeck J.M., “mechanical properties of prosthetic limbs: Adapting to the patient”, J. Rehab Res & Dev., vol. 38, issue3, pp. 299-307, 2001.
Pierre Cherelle, Victor Grosu, Manuel Cestari, Bram Vanderborght and Dirk Lefeber, “The AMP Foot, new generation propulsive prosthetic feet with explosive motion characteristics: design and validation”, Bio Med Eng On Line 2016, vol. 15, Suppl. 3, pp. 145, 2016. DOI 10.1186/s12938-016-0285-8
Bowker H.K and Michael J.W., “Atlas of limb prosthetics: Surgical, Prosthetic and Rehabilitation Principles”, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. 2nd Ed., 1992.
Rosalam C.M., Rahinah I and Parida T., “Natural bases biocomposite material for prosthetic socket fabrication”, Alam cipta., Vol. 5, no.1, pp. 27-35, 2012.
Myradal P.J., “Transtibial diagnostic prosthesis fabrication one and two”, O&P Business New, 2009. Retrieved from http;//www.O and P businessnews.com
Saito M, Sawamura S, Carroll B, Nakayama H, and Yuki M, “Mass produced prosthesis uses pultruded FRP”, Modern plastics, vol. 74, no.7, pp. 175, 1997.
Lucas, E.B. and Dahunsi, B.I.O., “Characteristics of Three Western Nigerian Rattan Species in Relation to Their Utilization as Construction Material”, Journal of Bamboo and Rattan, vol. 3, pp. 45-56, 2004b.
Rehab Tech, “Summary information on prosthetic standards available from Rehab Tech. J Rehab Res and Dev., vol. 28, no.2, pp. 79 – 90,1995.
Lucas, E.B. and Dahunsi, B.I.O., “Bond Strength in Concrete of Canes from Three Rattans Species”, Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. issue 4, pp. 1-5. (2004)
Duncan Kennedy, “Turning wood into bones”, BBC News. Rome, 2010. Retrieved 1 july, 2020.
The Diffusery, “FAQS: Questions: question 3”, thediffusery.com/faqs.htm#Q3. Retrieved 1 july, 2020
Reed Diffuser Guide, “Ideas for using a Reed Diffuser to fragrance your home: How to choose the best”. http/www/reeddiffusershop.com/how-to-choose-the-best-diffuser-reed/. Retrieved 1july, 2020
The Engineering Toolbox, “WOOD-Moisture and Compressive Strength-Red spruce, Longleaf pine and Douglas Fir- moisture content and their compressive strength”. Retrieved from. http/www. Engineeringtoolbox.com 1 july, 2020
Mahzuz H.M.A., Ahmed M., Uddin M.K., Hossain M.M. and Saquib N., “Determination of Tensile Stress and Bond Stress with Concrete of a Rattan (Calamus guruba)”, Scholars Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 1, pp. 39-43, 2013.
The Diffusery. FAQS: Questions: question 2. avotion.com/faqs.htm#Q2. Retrieved 1 july, 2020
[ 34] Kankam, C.K., “Raffia Palm-Reinforced Concrete Beams”, Materials and Structures, vol. 30, pp. 313-316, 1997.
Barry D.A and CP. C., “Composite materials for orthotics and prosthetics”,
Orthotics and Prosthetics, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 35-43, 1987.
Walke K.M and Pandure P.S., “Mechanical properties of materials used for prosthetic foot: A Review’, IOSR Journal of mechanical and Civil Engineering, e-ISSN; 2278-1684, Pp. 61-65, 2017.
Krieger, Herbert N., “The collection of primitive weapons and armor of the Philippine Islands in the United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institute”, United States National Museum Bulletin, pp137, 1926:
Christophe Verdot, Why use Rattan? Pekiti Tirsia Kali Global City Training in Taguig City Philippine, 2015. Retrieved from Pekiti –Tirsia Kali global city.com
Will Mclean, “Commonplace Book: Building a sword for rattan combat”, Posted; Labels: Recreating Medieval Combat, 2007.from. http/www.pekiti.com/ptistore/store.php, 1july, 2020.
Everythingwushu, “Everythingwushu Unique Handmade Rattan Shield Wushu Teng Pai Wushu Kungfu Shields”, 2020. Retrieved from https://www.amazon.com/Unique-Handmade-Rattan-Shield-Shields/dp/B076ZRFG49
Zmitrewicz R.J., Neptune R.R and Sasaki K., “Mechanical energetic contributions from individual muscles and elastic prosthetic feet during symmetric unilateral transtibial amputee walking: A theoretical study”. J. Biomech, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 1824–1831, 2007.
Hafner B.J., Sanders J.E., Czerniecki J. and Fergason J., “Energy storage and return prostheses: Does patient perception correlate with biomechanical analysis?”, Clin. Biomech. (Bristol, Avon), vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 325–344. 2002a.
Ehara Y., Beppu M., Nomura S., Kunimi Y and Takahashi, S., “Energy storing property of so-called energy-storing prosthetic feet”, Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., vol. 74, no.1, pp. 68–72, 1993.
Rakesh B., “The Jaipur foot and the Jaipur prosthesis”, Indian J Orthop. Vol.53, no. 1, pp. 5 – 7, 2019.
Al-kazraji K., Kadhim J and Ahmed P.S., “Tensile and fatigue characteristics of lower limb prosthetic socket made from composite materials”, Int Conf on Ind. Eng and OP Mgt, Istanbul Turkey, 2012.
Bowen J., Haussele J and Gonzalez R., “A low cost customizable prosthetic foot with energy return capabilities”, P and O open Journal, vol. 2, no. 1, pp.1, 2018.
Postema K, Hermens FU and Vries J., “Energy storage and release of prosthetic feet, part 1: Biomechanical analysis related to user benefit”, Prosthet Orthot Int., vol. 21, pp. 17–27, 1997.
Agustinus P. I, Frans J. D, Fanando F and Tommy A.,“Mechanical characteristics of rattan reinforced fiberglass and epoxy composite for shank prosthesis application”, Proceeding of the Innovation in Polymer Science and Technology IPST2011, pp. 63-70, 2016.
Agustinus Purna Irawan, Tresna P. Soemardi, K. K., Widjajalaksmi and Agus H. S. Reksoprodjo, “Gait Analysis Of The Prosthesis Prototype Made From The Natural Fiber Reinforced Composite”, Proceedings, APCHI-ERGOFUTURE, Udayana University Press, pp. 39-43. 2010. ISBN No: 978-602-8566-85-8
Vincent Gremeaux, Marwa Iskander, Gaelle Deley, Dominic Perennou and Sean-Marie Casillas, “Comparative Analysis of Oxygen Uptake in Elderly Subjects Performing two Walk Tests: the six-minutes’ walk test and the 200-m fast walk test”, Clin Rehabilitation, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 162-168, 2008.
Hafner B.J., Sanders J.E., Czerniecki J.M. and Fergason J., “Transtibial energy storage-and-return prosthetic devices: A review of energy concepts and a proposednomenclature”, J. Rehabil. Res. Dev., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2002b.
Francis J. Trost, “Energy storing feet”, Journal of the association of children's P and O Clinics, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 82-101, 2000.
Tommy Oberg, Alek Karsznia and Kurt Oberg, ”Basic gait parameter: reference data for normal subject, 10-79 years of age”, Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 210-223, 1993.
Agustinus Purna Irawan, Tresna P. Soemardi, K. K. Widjajalaksmi, Agus H. S. Reksoprodjo, “Tensile and Flexural Strength of Ranie Fiber reinforced Epoxy Composites for socket Prosthesis Application”, International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering (IJMME), vol.6, no.1, pp. 46-50, 2011.
Kahtan Al-Khazraji, Jawad Kadhim and Payman Sahbah Ahmed , “Tensile and Fatigue Characteristics of Lower-Limb Prosthetic Socket Made from Composite Materials”, Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 847-852, 2012.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Kelechi D. Kelechi, Gideon I. N. Ndubuka, Kingsley C. Onwukamuche, Micheal C. Ofoegbu, Ugochi C. Elueke, Alice C. Igwe, Wilson C. Okafor, Chioma C. Okey-mbata, Jervas Ekezie
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
- Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by any other publisher.
- It is also the authors responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular source are submitted with the necessary approval.
- The authors warrant that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required.
- The authors ensure that all the references carefully and they are accurate in the text as well as in the list of references (and vice versa).
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.