Taguchi Optimization of Carboxymethylation Process and Effect Reaction Efficiency on Swelling Capacity


  • Ernest C. Agwamba Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Clifford University, Owerrinta, Abia State
  • Lawal G. Hassan
  • Achor Muhammad
  • Abdullahi M. Sokoto




Taguchi methods, Optimization, Carboxymethyl starch (CMS), Reaction efficiency (R.E), Swelling Capacity (SC).


The aim of this research paper was to ascertain the optimum conditions required to economical synthesis carboxymethylated starch using experimental design technique by Taguchi for Larger-is-better and smaller-is better of reaction efficiency (RE). Orthogonal Array method was utilized in the design of the experiment which consisted of eighteen (18) runs based on three (3) independent Factors which are; Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with three concentration levels (1, 1.5, and 2.0M), Sodium monochloroacetate (SMCA) with three concentration levels (1, 1.5, and 2.0M) and Reaction Time (T) with two (2) levels (2 and 4 hours) respectively and the response is reaction efficiency (R.E). The result obtained from the experiment was interpreted using the Taguchi method of larger-is-better and smaller-is-better was apply to estimate the Response for Signal-to-Noise Ratios. The analysis showed that for larger-is-better, the optimal condition to obtain high reaction efficiency (R.E.) of 9.97%, will require NaOH at 2.0 M, SMCA at 1.0 M, at reaction period of, while for smaller-is-better, the optimal condition to obtain low reaction efficiency (RE) of 1.93 %, will required the concentration of NaOH (aq) and SMCA (aq) to be 1.5 M and 1.5 M with a reaction period (T) of 4 hours respectively. The result was also study the influence of variable SMCA (aq) and NaOH (aq) concentrations on swelling capacity (SC) at reaction time of 2 hours. The result shows that 2M NaOH is the optimum concentration for carboxymethyl starch (CMS) synthesis. .Significant difference was ascertained using Tukey method, and at 95% Confidence level.


Kavlani N., Sharma V., and Singh L.; “Various Techniques for the modification of starch and the applications of its Derivativesâ€. International Research Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 3, Iss.5, pp. 25-31, 2012.

Gander B., Gurny R., Doelker E.. “Effect of Tablet Disintegration on the Release and Absorption of an Insoluble Drug Modelâ€. Acta Pharmaceutical Technology, vol. 31, iss.2, pp.77-84, 1985.

Zhang, D. F., Ju, B. Z., Zhang, S. F., Yang, J. Z. “Progress in the synthesis and application of green chemicals, carboxy methyl starch sodiumâ€. In proceeding of. 3rd International Conference on Functional Molecules, pp.25–30, 2003.

Abbas, K.A., Khalil S.K., and Hussin A.S.M. “Modified Starches and Their Usages in Selected Food Products: A Review Studyâ€. Journal of Agricultural Science, vol.2, no. 2, pp. 23 -34, 2010.

Wandrey, C., Bartkowiak, A., Harding, S. E., Zuidam, N. J., Nedovic, V. A. “Encapsulation Technologies for Active Food Ingredients and Food Processingâ€, Springer, USA, pp .31–100, 2010.

Kozich, M. and Waston, M. “Applications of chemically modified starchâ€. In proceeding of 63rd Starch Convention, pp. 2-8, 2012.

Minaev K.M., Martynova D.O., Zakharov A.S., Sagitov R.R., Ber A.A., and lyanova1 O.S.U., “Synthesis of Carboxymethyl Starch for increasing drilling mud quality in drilling oil and gas wellsâ€. In proceeding of 43rd IOP Conference. Series on Earth and Environmental Science, 2016.

Tatongjai, J., and Lumdubwong, N., “Physicochemical properties and textile utilization of low- and moderate-substituted carboxymethyl rice starches with various amylose contentâ€. Carbohydrydrate. Polymer, vol.81, pp. 377–384, 2016.

Zhou, X., Yang, J., Qian, F., Qu, G., “Synthesis and application of modified starch as a shell–core main adhesive in a foundryâ€. Journal Applied Polymer Science, vol. 116, pp. 2893–2900, 2010.

Bhattacharyya, D., Singhal, R. S., Kulkarni, P. R., “Physicochemical properties of carboxymethyl starch prepared from corn and waxy amaranth starchâ€. Carbohydrate Polymer, vol.27, pp. 167–169, 1995..

Lawal, O. S., Lechner, M. D., Hartmann, B., Kulicke, W. M., “Carboxymethyl cocoyam starch: Synthesis, characterization and influence of the reaction parametersâ€. Starch/Sta¨rke, vol.59, pp. 224–233, 2007.

Minitab17(2013). Minitab Inc. www.mintab.com/assistant. (online)

Bhaduria1 O.S., Goyal S., Premanand S. C., “Application of Taguchi Method for Optimization of Process Parameters for Minimum Surface Roughness in Turning Of 45c8â€. International Journal Of Current Engineering And Scientific Research, vol.3, Iss.1, pp. 61-68, 2016.

Khuri, A.I., and Mukhopadhyay S., “Response surface methodologyâ€. Advanced Review, vol.2, pp.128-149, 2010.

Chavan U.D., Shahidi, B.G., Kadam, S.S and Amarowicz, A., “Isolation and characterization of Starch from Horse Gramâ€. Africa Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol.1, no.3, pp. 64-67, 2010.

Kevate, B.N., Chavan, U.D., Kadam, S.S., Chavan, J.K. and Amarowicz, R., “Isolation and characterization of starch from Moth Beanâ€. African Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol.1, no.3, pp. 68 -70, 2010.

Uba, A., Izuagie, T., Hassan, L. G., Achor, M. and Sahabi, D. M., “Characterization of starch isolated from Mangifera indica seedsâ€. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science, vol.19, no.2, pp. 224-230, 2011.

Hassan, L.G., Muhammad, A.B., Aliyu, R. U., Idris, Z. M., Izuagie, T., Umar, K.J., and Sani, N.A. “Extraction and Characterization of Starches from Four Varieties of Mangifera indica Seeds. Journal of Applied Chemistry, vol.3, no.6, pp. 16-23, 2013.

Lawal O.S., Storz, J., Storz, H., Lohmann, D., Lechner, D., Kulicke, M.W. “Hydrogels based on carboxymethyl cassava starch cross-linked with di- or polyfunctional carboxylic acids: Synthesis, water absorbent behavior and rheological characterizationsâ€. European Polymer Journal, vol. 45, pp. 3399–3408, 2009.

Ballesteros, L.F., Cerqueira, M.A., Teixeira, J.A., Mussatto, S.I.. “Production and physicochemical properties of carboxymethyl cellulose films enriched with spent coffee grounds polysaccharidesâ€. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol.106, pp. 647-655, 2018.

Okhamafe A.O., Igboechi A., Obaseki T.O., “Celluloses extracted from groundnut shell and rice husks Preliminary physicochemical Characterizationâ€. Pharmaceutical World Journal, vol. 8, no.4, pp. 120–130, 1991.




How to Cite

Agwamba, E. C., Hassan, L. G., Muhammad, A., & Sokoto, A. M. (2019). Taguchi Optimization of Carboxymethylation Process and Effect Reaction Efficiency on Swelling Capacity. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 7(5). https://doi.org/10.24203/ajas.v7i5.5954

Most read articles by the same author(s)