Industrial Operation Feasibility for Red Gypsum-Based Brick Manufacturing

Mohd Amirul Hakim Sidek, Rosli M. Yunus, Mohammad Al-Nizar Khan Ahmad Khan, Muhammad Remanul Islam


The red gypsum (RG) waste is one of the major solid wastes generated in Malaysia. Currently the RG is mainly sent to secured landfill within the premise of the waste generators. In this study, the RG was investigated for its potential to be used as replacement for cement and sand in the manufacturing of cement brick using industrial brick manufacturing facility. An industrial guideline for RG brick manufacturing industry was established based on the outcome of this study. The guideline can be used by RG brick manufacturer to select the best water/cement (w/c) ratio to be used in the RG brick manufacturing for a specific market segment in order to maximize its profit and competitiveness.


Red gypsum (RG); brick manufacturing; feasibility; industrial setup

Full Text:



P. N. Hughes, S. Glendinning, D.A.C. Manning, B. C. Noble, Production of green concrete using red gypsum and waste, Engineering Sustainability, 2010, 163(3):137-146.

Gazquez, M. J., Bolivar, J. P., Vaca, F., García-Tenorio, R., & Caparros, A. Evaluation of the use of TiO2 industry red gypsum waste in cement production. Cement and Concrete Composites, 2013, 37(1), 76–81.

Nurhidayah Binti Mahazam, Nurul Syafiqah Binti Mohd Azmi, Evaluation of Physical and Chemical Properties of Red Gypsum from Terengganu, Malaysia, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, 2016, 5(1) 433-436

Takanori Fukami, Shuta Tahara, Keiko Nakasone, Chitoshi Yasuda, Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Thermal Properties of CaSO4•2H2O Single Crystals, International Journal of Chemistry, 2015, 7(2) 12-20.

Ouda, Ahmed S. and Hamdy A. Abdel-Gawwad. 2015. “The Effect of Replacing Sand by Iron Slag on Physical, Mechanical and Radiological Properties of Cement Mortar.” HBRC Journal 13(3):255–61.

Tulashie, Samuel Kofi, Francis Kotoka, David Mensah, and Anthony Kwame Kwablah. 2017. “Investigation of the Compressive Strength of Pit Sand, and Sea Sand Mortar Prisms Produced with Rice Husk Ash as Additive.” Construction and Building Materials 151:383–87

Bederina, M., Z. Makhloufi, A. Bounoua, T. Bouziani, and M. Quéneudec. 2013. “Effect of Partial and Total Replacement of Siliceous River Sand with Limestone Crushed Sand on the Durability of Mortars Exposed to Chemical Solutions.” Construction and Building Materials 47:146–58.

Jeyaprabha, B., G. Elangovan, and P. Prakash. 2016. “Effects of Elevated Temperature and Water Quenching on Strength and Microstructure of Mortars with River Sand Substitutes.” Construction and Building Materials 114:688–98

Liu, Kai, Zhi Wang, Can Jin, Fang Wang, and Xueyuan Lu. 2015. “An Experimental Study on Thermal Conductivity of Iron Ore Sand Cement Mortar.” 101:932–41.

Saha, Ashish Kumer and Prabir Kumar Sarker. 2017. “Compressive Strength of Mortar Containing Ferronickel Slag as Replacement of Natural Sand.” Procedia Engineering 171:689–94.

Shakir, Alaa A., Sivakumar Naganathan, and Kamal Nasharuddin Mustapha. 2013. “Properties of Bricks Made Using Fly Ash, Quarry Dust and Billet Scale.” Construction and Building Materials 41:131–38.

Singh, S. B., Pankaj Munjal, and Nikesh Thammishetti. 2015. “Role of Water / Cement Ratio on Strength Development of Cement Mortar.” 4:94–100.

Kartini, K., Z. A. Norul Ernida, B. Noor Fazilla, and Ahmad Farhan.H. 2012. “Development of Lightweight Sand-Cement Bricks Using Quarry Dust, Rice Husk and Kenaf Powder for Sustainability.” International Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering IJCEE-IJENS 12(06):1–7.

Bilir, Turhan, Osman Gencel, and Ilker Bekir. 2015. “Properties of Mortars with Fly Ash as Fine Aggregate.” Construction and Building Materials 93:782–89.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.