Anthropometry based Predictive Equations for Estimating Nigerian Women Percentage Body Fat using Stable Isotope Technique as Reference
Keywords:Anthropometry based predictive equations, percentage body fat, Nigerian women, stable isotope technique
The direct measurement of body composition using innovative non-or minimally-invasive technologies such as stable isotope technique, despite its reliability and precision remains a significant challenge. Â This study was designed to develop predictive equations for estimating the percentage body fat of Nigerian women using isotope dilution (ISD) or gold standard technique (as in IAEA procedure) as reference and validated by bioelectrical impedance technique.The percentage body fats (% BF) of 173 Nigerian women (aged 18-55 yrs) were estimated using isotope dilution (ISD) or gold standard technique (as in IAEA procedure) as reference and validated by bioelectrical impedance technique. The skinfold thicknesses (mm) such as biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac and abdominal were measured using skinfold langre callipers while body circumferences such as forearm, wrist, waist, abdominal and hip were measured using standard tape rule and in accordance with WHO guidelines.Â The subjectsâ€™ percentage body fat (%BF) ranged from 8.0 to 48.5. Generally, at 0.01 level of significance (Using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS), higher positive significant correlations were obtained between % BF by ISD and body circumferences (r=0.503-0.874) than skinfold thicknesses (r=0.503-0.739). Using forward selection regression procedure, three sex-specific based predictive equations for estimating %BF (incorporating subjectsâ€™ weight and body circumferences such as hip, abdominal and waist) were developed based on the subjectsâ€™ ethnic groups (Yoruba, Hausa and Ibos) with high R2 (0.853, 0.953 & 0.867) and low Pure errors (3.316, 2.791 & 2.324) respect. These equations provide easy way of measuring percentage body fat and are recommended for use in clinical or epidemiological settings in populations with similar ethnic background and in lieu of isotope dilution method.
Amy, R.D., Arvizu, C.R., Liaine, ., Terence, F.â€Relation between Body mass index and body fat in black population sample from Nigeria, Jamaica and United Statesâ€, Am. J. Epidemid., 45 (7): pp 1-12. (1997).
Brosek, J, Grande, F., Anderson, T, Keys, A.. â€œDensitometric Analysis of body composition: revisions of some quantitative assumptionsâ€ Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 110, pp113-140, (1963).
Durnin, J.V.A., Womersley, J. â€œBody fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thicknesses: measurement on 481 men and women aged from 16-72 yearsâ€ British J. Nutr., 32, pp 77-97, (1974).
Goon, DT. â€œAbdominal body fatness among Nigerian women: a study on the anthropometric index of waist to stature ratio.â€ Pak. J. Med Sci.., 2010; 26 (3): pp 577-580 (2010).
Guo, S.S, Chumlea, W. â€œStatistical methods for the development and testing of predictive equations in human composition methods and findingsâ€ A.F. Roche, S.B. Haymsfield, Lohman T.G Eds Champaign, pp191-202 ,(1996).
IAEA .Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans Using Stable Isotope Techniques, IAEA Human Health Series No 3: pp 13-40, (2009).
Kopelman P 2000. Health risks associated with overweight and obesity, Diabetes care..; 23, pp 1835-1839, (2000).
Lefebvre, H. â€œBody composition characteristics and body fat distribution in Lean women with polycystic ovary syndromeâ€ Hum.Reprod., 6(6): pp 1255-126, (2011).
Oketayo, O.O and Ojo, J.O â€œAnthropometric predictive equations for percentage body fat in Nigerian women using bioelectrical impedance as referenceâ€ Ife Journal of Science, 2011;13(2)pp 363-369, (2011).
Poultrers, N.R., Khaw, K., Hopwood, B.E â€œDeterminant of blood pressure changes due to urbanization: a longitudinal studyâ€ J. Hypertens Suppl., 3: pp 5375-5377, (1985).
Reas. D.L, Jan, F..N, Elisabeth, S., Sandanger, T.I. â€œChanges in body mass indexage, gender and socio-economic status among a cohort of Norwegian men and womenâ€ (1990-2001), BMC Public Health, 7:pp 269 (2007).
Silver, A.J., Guillen, C.P., Kahl, M.J and Morley J.E. â€œEffect of aging on body fatâ€â€™ J Am Gerriatr Soc, 4: pp 211-3, (1993).
How to Cite
- Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by any other publisher.
- It is also the authors responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular source are submitted with the necessary approval.
- The authors warrant that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required.
- The authors ensure that all the references carefully and they are accurate in the text as well as in the list of references (and vice versa).
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.