Exploratory Study of the Idling Driving Effect on Gas Emission Levels in a Traffic Jam Environment: Case Study of Jakarta Metropolitan Traffic on Gasoline Passenger Cars

Abdi Pratama, Akihiro Tokai, Hoa Thi Nguyen, Kojima Naoya


In this paper, we measured the potential avoidable emissions in Jakarta city, one of the busiest cities in the world for traffic. We analyzed its impact on the total emissions from passenger gasoline cars. We recorded each designated road to estimate the idling time during travelling and calculated the avoidable emissions of CO, NO, and HC gas from vehicles. We determined that more than 46.0% of the recorded lost travel distance occurred with an average speed <5 km/h. Expanding idling driving to <10 km added a +10.0% contribution to the avoidable emissions. The 46.0% portions contribute to the current emission levels. However, because of the limitations of the work in this field, the last portion is often neglected in past work. In 2040, CO, NO, and HC showed similar tendencies with an emission difference of more than 46.0% or 481.79 thousand tons for CO, 2,275 thousand tons for NO, and 20,472 thousand tons for HC. Idle driving contributes to the emissions in traffic jam conditions in Jakarta city. The increase of avoidable emissions is strongly supported by the high growth rate of vehicles by more than 9.0% every year, which is larger when compared to the annual road growth that only averages 0.01%. We have concluded that avoidable emissions during traffic jams needs to be urgently solved. Eliminating emissions during idling conditions using a technological approach or by conducting idle driving education are two potential ways to reduce avoidable emissions during traffic jams.­­­­


Jakarta, traffic jam, avoidable emission

Full Text:



Badan Pusat Statistik Jakarta. (2015). Transportation statistic of Jakarta. Retrieved from http://jakarta.bps.go.id/backend/pdf_publikasi/Statistik-Transportasi-DKI-Jakarta-2015.pdf

Choi, J., Lee, C., Lee, S., Yu, J. (2007). Development of the Traffic Congestion Index for Freeway Corridors in South Korea.

Dickson. (2017). 10 Kota Terbesar di Indonesia Menurut Jumlah Penduduknya (Ten largest city in Indonesia based on population). Retrieved from http://ilmupengetahuanumum.com/10-kota-terbesar-di-indonesia-menurut-jumlah-penduduknya/

Febri Ardani Saragih. (2016). Ini Jumlah Kendaraan yang Beredar di Jakarta (Number of vehicle in Jakarta). Retrieved from http://otomotif.kompas.com/read/2014/12/11/110000615/Ini.Jumlah.Kendaraan.yang.Beredar.di.Jakarta

Gaines, L., Rask, E., & Keller, G. (2012). Comparing fuel use and emissions for short passenger car stops, 1–2. Retrieved from http://www.afdc.energy.gov/uploads/publication/which_is_greener.pdf

Geografis Jakarta. (2018).

Jakarta, D. B. M. D. P. U. Office of H. (2014). Jumlah jalan Jakarta menurut fungsi (Number of Jakarta Street According to Function). Retrieved from http://www.pu.go.id

Mead, N. Van. (2016). The world’s worst traffic: can Jakarta find an alternative to the car? Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2016/nov/23/world-worst-traffic-jakarta-alternative

Nugroho, S. B., & Fujiwara, A. (2005). Evaluating the Effects of a New Vehicle Emission Standard on Urban Air Quality in Jakarta City. Journal of International Development and Cooperation, 11(2), 17–37.

Pratama, A., & Tokai, A. (2018). Passenger Vehicle Emissions in Indonesia: Future Projections. Journal of Sustainable Development, 11.

Pratama, A., & Tokai, A. (2018). Study of the incentive caused by the Scrappage program in accelerating old-car replacement in order to reduce gas emissions from gasoline passenger cars in Indonesia. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 6(6).

Shancita, I., Masjuki, H. H., Kalam, M. A., Fattah, I. M. R., Rashed, M. M., & Rashedul, H. K. (2014). A review on idling reduction strategies to improve fuel economy and reduce exhaust emissions of transport vehicles. Energy Conversion and Management, 88, 794–807. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2014.09.036

Taylor, M. A. P., Woolley, J. E., & Zito, R. (2000). Integration of the global positioning system and geographical information systems for traffic congestion studies. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 8(1–6), 257–285. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0968-090X(00)00015-2

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24203/ajas.v6i6.5603


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.