Assessment of the Zygote and Cleaved Stages Frozen-Thawed Human Embryos by Vitrification and their Survival to Blastocysts
Keywords:Human zygote, cleaved stages, vitrification.
Cryopreservation of human gametes and embryos is now considered as an important tool in assisted reproduction treatments as it increases the cumulative pregnancy rates while decreasing cost.
Cryopreservation procedures are such unphysiological circumstances mainly on account of severe temperature and osmotic alterations. Since the early 1990s, two common methods of cryopreservation have been used. Both of these methods have finally depended on the freezing and solidification of cell or tissue. Recently, the one known as vitrification has been claimed as the future of cryopreservation because of increased survival and success rates. However, this method is a non-equilibrium technique of cryopreservation that shows critical requirements of much higher concentration of permeable cryoprotectants and rate of cooling. Thus, it is a more vigorous mean of all possible cell damage except the formation of intracellular ice crystals that is totally prevented by vitrification. Nevertheless, there is no adequate cumulative data on the outcomes of vitrification performed at different stages of human embryos.
The aim of this study a) is to assess whether vitrification at different early stages (zygotes and cleavage) of human embryos alters the outcomes of vitrification. b) if so, to predict the preferable stage between the two stages of vitrification of human embryos to attain the highest yields. It has been well demonstrated that vitrification of human gametes and embryos have resulted in different success rates according to the developmental stage of the cell. Then, the most preferable stage of vitrification will be identified on the basis of blastocyst formation obtaining from extended culture conditions of the thawed embryos till day 5, using non-transferable embryos.
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