Effect of Abscisic Acid and Desiccation on Germination and Conversion of Oil Palm (<i>Elaeis guineensis</i> Jacq.) Somatic Embryos in Medium Supplemented with Gibberellic Acid (GA<sub>3</sub>)
Keywords:germination, conversion, abscisic acid, desiccation, somatic embryo, oil palm
Oil palm is a commodity plant which has a great potential to develop due to a high economical value. Palm oil is useful for food industry, detergent and soap industry, cosmetic, and as alternative fuel (palm biodiesel). However, oil palm plantation in Indonesia mostly derived from seed. Supply of seeds conventionally is not sufficient for plant that will be developed widely. Micropropagation via somatic embryogenesis technique can produce high yield clones in a short period. However, low level and unsynchronous germination, precocious germination, and also inefficient conversion are the main problems in somatic embryogenesis. The objectives of this research were: to evaluate the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) and desiccation on germination and conversion of somatic embryos, to determine the optimum concentration of ABA and desiccation duration in obtaining the synchronous germination and high conversion level, and to evaluate the histology of somatic embryo in germination and conversion stage observed by light microscope. The research material was calli of oil palm 638 clone. Suspension culture of oil palm was initiated by inoculating 0,5 g of the calli into suspension initiated medium supplemented with 226 Î¼M of 2,4-D and 4,44 Î¼M of BAP and cultured for 4 weeks. Subsequently, the somatic embryos were developed into embryo development medium I without plant growth regulator for 4 weeks. Thereafter, the developed somatic embryos were plated on embryo development medium II supplemented with 5 Î¼M BA for 1 week. Then, the somatic embryos were subcultured into maturation medium I supplemented with 20 mM glutamine and 5 mM arginine cultured for 3 weeks. Finally, the mature somatic embryos were subcultured into the maturation medium II supplemented with the various concentration of ABA (0, 10, 25, and 50 Î¼M) and cultured for 2 weeks and desiccated for 2, 3, and 4 hours. The complete mature somatic embryos were subcultured into pregermination medium supplemented with 100 Î¼M GA3 to induce the germination. The germinating somatic embryos were then subcultured into the germination medium without plant growth regulator. After 10 weeks of culture, germination and conversion percentage were counted and analyzed by non parametric statistic test of Kruskal-Wallis. The highest germination percentage was on the embryos treated with 25 Î¼M ABA (100%). The highest conversion percentage of somatic embryos into plantlet was on the embryos treated with ABA 25 Î¼M (75%). These results are significantly different with two other concentrations (10 Î¼M and 50 Î¼M) treatment. Desiccation duration of 2, 3, and 4 hours were optimum duration range to increase germination and embryo conversion into plantlet because more than 80% embryos germinated and more than 60% embryos converted into plantlet. Converted somatic embryos have vascular bundle connecting shoot apical meristem and root apical meristem. It can be concluded that the supplementation of ABA and desiccation treatment could increase the germination and conversion of somatic embryo into plantlet synchronously.
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