Breast feeding practices among kashmiri population


  • Yasmeen Majid Khan higher eucation
  • Asmat Khan


Breastfeeding, Exclusive breastfeeding, Partial breast feeding, Commercial Milk (CM).


The study assessed the breast feeding practices of mothers in three distinct regions of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh. 1293 mothers with children aged 0-2 years were selected randomly. Sampling was done with probability proportion to size (PPS). In this way 680 mothers from Jammu, 512 from Kashmir and 101 from Ladakh were selected. Practices regarding breastfeeding were assessed using pre-tested questionnaires. Results indicated highly significant inter-regional difference in breast feeding practices. Exclusive breast feeding rates at 0-3 months were 56.0%, 52.6% and 91.2% in Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh. While at 0-6 months EBR were as 52.0%, 52.1% and only 15.8%. Exclusive breastfeeding got hampered in Jammu and Kashmir regions due to introduction of top milk while in Ladakh children were weaned quite early. The study shows that erratic feeding practices have made deep inroads into the psyche of the population. Despite the legislation of IMS act the commercial sector continues to find ways and means to market their products that undermine breastfeeding in all the three regions.




Author Biography

Yasmeen Majid Khan, higher eucation

Dr. Yasmeen khan

Senior Assistant Professor

Govt. Degree College for women M.A. Road.

Permanent address:  Mannat, House No.21 Parry Pora, Baghat Barzulla Srinagar, Kashmir, India 190005.



Ph: 0194-2430468

Mobile: 9419446749

Educational Qualifications

PhD Foods and Nutrition    University of Kashmir  2008

First class in M.Sc Home Science    University of Kashmir 1989

First class in B.Sc Home Science  University of Kashmir 1986

Area of Specialization Foods and nutrition

Present Academic Engagements

Teaching Areas

Foods and nutrition

Human development

Early childhood care and education

Counseling and family therapy


Professional Experience

Department of Home Science university of Kashmir   (1991 -1999).

Govt Degree College for Women M.A Road. (1999-2003).

Govt Degree College for Women Anantnag. (2003-2008).

Teaching counselor  IGNOU (Indira Gandhi National open university (2000-till date)

Visiting faculty Deptt of Distance Education university of Kashmir   (2004-till date).

Visiting faculty Deptt of Adult and Continuing Extension education Deptt of university of Kashmir   (2004-till date).

Visiting faculty for Behavioral Sciences IMPA.(2009)

Teaching experience (at P.G level) for 8 and a half years

Teaching experience (at U.G level) for 12 years.

Counseller IGNOU for Masters Course in counseling and family Therapy.

Counseller IGNOU for Masters Course in Dietetics and Institutional management.

Guided various Research projects at P.G level.

Guided M.Phil Thesis on Various Topics

Academic Responsibilities Handled

Member, Board of Studies, Department of home  science(M.Sc food and nutrition),

Member, Board of Studies, Department of home science (bsc food and nutrition),

Journal article reviewer journal of medical sciences SKIMS SRINAGAR

resource person for refresher course UGC academic staff college university of Kashmir


World Health Organization. Sixth Report on the World health Situation, Part I Global Analysis 1973-1977, WHO, Geneva, 1980.

Okeahinalan TC. Breast feeding practices among Nigerian Igbo mothers. J. Trop Pediatric 1986: 154-157.

WHO/UNICEF meeting on infant on young child feeding WHO Chronicle 1979; 33: 435-443.

Geervani P. Current weaning practices, Constraints for supplementation and the scope of modifying adult diets for infant feeding. In: Report of Workshop on weaning Foods. 1-2 July. WHO/ ICMR Regional office for South-Central Asia. New Delhi. 1983.

National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2), 1998-99: India, Mumbai: IIPS..

BPNI 2003 =>

Ibhanesebhor SE, Muogbo DC: Impact of the Baby Friendly hospital initiative.Int Child health 1995, VI: 73-76.

Devdas RP, Purushothanman V and Paul M. (1999). Trends in Breastfeeding practices. The Ind. J Nutr Diet; 36 (1): 1-11. (NFHS-2), International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS). And ORC Macro. 2000.

Kishore S and Garg BS. (1999) Practices of Prelacteal Feeding in a Rural Community. Indian J of Public Health; 43(4): 144-147.

Hiwarkar PA, Aswar NAR, Durge PM Shendre MO: Breastfeeding & Weaning practices in Rural Mothers; The J Obstet Gynaec India 1999, 49(6), 73-76.

Chitkara AJ, Gupta S: Infant feeding Practices and Morbidity; Indian Pediatrics, 1987, 24: 865-71.

Gopujkar PV, chaudhuri SN, Ramswami MA, gore MS and Gopalan C. (1988). Promoting Wholesome Infant Feeding Practices in India. Indian J Pediatrics: 55(1): 173-176.

Briend, Andre, B. Wojtyniak, and M. Rowland. 1988. Breastfeeding, nutritional state,and child survival in rural Bangladesh. British Medical Journal 296:879–82.

Cabigon, J. V. 1997. The effects of birthspacing and breastfeeding on childhood mortality in the Philippines. Journal of Population 3(1): 1–

.Habicht, J. P., J. DaVanzo, and W. P. Butz. 1986. Does breastfeeding really save live or are apparent benefits due to biases? American Journal of Epidemiolog 123:279–386

Huffman, S. L., and B. B. Lamphere. 1984. Breastfeeding performance and child survival. In W. H. Mosley and L. C. Chen, eds. Child survival: Strategies for research. Population and Development Review 10(suppl.): 93–116

16. Jellife, D. B., and E. F. P. Jellife. 1978. Human milk in the modern world. Oxford:Oxford University Press

17. Palloni, A., and Tienda, M. 1986. The effects of breastfeeding and pace of childbearing on mortality at early ages. Demography 23:31–52.

18. Yoon, Paula W., R. E. Black, L. H. Moulton, and S. Becker. 1996. Effect of not breastfeeding on the risk of diarrheal and respiratory mortality in children under 2 years of age in Metro Cebu, The Philippines. American Journal of Epidemiology 143(11): 1142–8.

World Health Organization (WHO). 1991. Indicators for assessing breastfeeding practices. Report of an Informal Meeting, 11–12 June 1991. Geneva: WHO.




How to Cite

Khan, Y. M., & Khan, A. (2013). Breast feeding practices among kashmiri population. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 1(1). Retrieved from