Investigating the Chemical Composition of Saffron (<i>Crocus sativus</i>) Growing in Different Geographic Regions
Keywords:Crocus sativus, saffron, chemistry of saffron, geography of saffron
Saffron, the most expensive spice with varying chemical properties, is grown in different parts of the world. The chemistry of different varieties of saffron growing in different geographic regions was studied in this paper. The saffron grown in the Safranbolu and Khorasan regions was analyzed in this study by measuring the amounts of moisture and volatile components, total ash, and undissolved ash in acid within saffron followed by characterization, using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The results showed that moisture contents in Turkish and Iranian saffron were 6.48% and 5.92% respectively, while the amounts of total ash in Turkish and Iranian saffron were 6.85% and 6.10% respectively. The amounts of ash undissolved in acid were 0.66% and 0.50% respectively in Turkish and Iranian saffron. The results of UV-Vis spectrophotometry showed that equivalent to 1% mixing; the absorbance values for picrocrocin, saffranal, and crocin ingredients were 61.20, 34.08, and 162.12, respectively, in Turkish saffron. On the other hand, the absorbance values for picrocrocin, saffranal, and crocin ingredients were 71.00, 43.81, and 196.56, respectively, in Iranian saffron. All these outcomes conclusively proved that the main reasons behind the differences in chemical composition of saffron are the different conditions of growth and climate. In addition, the effect of fertilizers and bulb size were also important..
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