Effects of Growing Altitude, Tea amount and Brewing Time on Multisensory Rating of Oolong Tea
Keywords:Growing altitude, Tea amount, Brewing time, Multisensory rating
The present study proposed a systematic approach to investigate the factors that might affect the multisensory rating (MSR) of oolong tea based on participantsâ€™ point of view. There were three independent factors investigated: growing altitude, tea amount and brewing time. The results showed the three main factors all significantly affect the MSR. A high growing altitude of 1000m results in better MSR than a low growing altitude of 300m. In terms of tea amount, 2.0g and 2.25g results in better MSR than 1.75g and 2.5g. Brewing times of 60s and 75s resulted in better MSR than 45s. In summary, a growing altitude of 1000m, tea amounts of 2.0g and 2.25g, and brewing time of 60s were the best brewing combinations for experienced consumers when using a 120ml porcelain teapot and a water temperature of 95Â°C. Further, the results also imply there might be an optimal range of tea amount and brewing time for oolong tea.
Benzie, I.F., Szeto, Y.T., â€œTotal antioxidant capacity of teas by the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assayâ€, J. Agric. Food Chem. 47, 633-636, 1999.
BÃ¸hn, S.K., Ward, N.C., Hodgson, J.M. and Croft, K.D., â€œEffects of tea and coffee on cardiovascular disease riskâ€, Food Funct. 3(6), 575-591, 2012.
Box, G.E.P., Draper, N.R., Empirical Model-building and Response Surfaces. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1986.
Chakraborty, K., Bhattacharjee, S., Pal, T.K., Bhattacharyya, S., â€œEvaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential of Tea (Camelia sinensis) leaves obtained from different heights of Darjeeling Hillâ€, West Bengal. J. Appl. Pharmacol. Sci. 5(1), 63-68, 2015.
dA Silva PInto M., â€œTea: a new perspective on health benefitsâ€, Food Res. Int. 53(2), 558-567, 2013.
Drobna, Z., Wismer, W.V., Goonewardene, L.A., â€œSelection of an astringency reference standard for the sensory evaluation of black teaâ€, J. Sens. Stud. 19(2), 119-132, 2004.
Han, L.K. Takaku, T., Li, J., Kimura, Y., Okuda, H., â€œAnti-obesity action of oolong teaâ€, Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 23, 98-105, 1999.
Hayat, K., Iqbal, H., Malik, U., Bilal, U., Mushtaq, S., â€œTea and its consumption: benefits and risksâ€, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 55(7): available at: http:// www. tandfonline. com/ doi/ abs/ 10.1080/ 10408398. 2012. 678949, 2015.
Kirk, R.E., Experimental Design: Procedures for the Behavioral Sciences. CA: Brooks/Cole, 2nd ed., Belmont, 1982.
Khuri, A.L., cornell, J.A., Response Surface: Design and Analysis. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1987.
Lee, S.M., Chung, S.-J., Lee, O.-H., Lee, H.-S., Kim, Y.-K., Kim, K.-O., â€œDevelopment of sample preparation, presentation procedure and sensory descriptive analysis of green teaâ€, J. Sens. Stud. 23(4), 450-467, 2008.
Lin, C.-C., Chen, Y.-C., â€œOptimization of the brewing combination of oolong tea by subjective ratingâ€, Int. J. Agric. Innovations Res. 3(6), 1728-1731, 2015.
Montgomery, D.C., Design and Analysis of Experiments. 3rd ed., New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1991.
Palit, M., Tudu, B., Dutta, P.K., Dutta, A., Jana, A., Roy, J.K., Bhattacharyya, N., Bandyopadhyay, R., Chatterjee, A., â€œClassification of black tea taste and correlation with tea taster's mark using voltammetric electronic tongueâ€, Instr. and Meas. IEEE Trans. on. 59(8), 2230-2239, 2010.
Rumpler, W., Seale, J., Clevidence, B., JudD, J., Wiley, E., Yamamoto, S., Komatsu, T., Sawaki, T., Ishikura, Y., Hosoda, K., Oolong tea increases metabolic rate and fat oxidation in menâ€, J. Nutr. 131(11), 2848-2852, 2001.
Schwalfenberg, G., Genuis, S.J., Rodushkin, I., â€œThe benefits and risks of consuming brewed tea: beware of toxic element contaminationâ€, J. Toxicol. Article ID 370460, available at: http:// www. hindawi. com/ journals/ jt/ 2013/ 370460/, 2013.
Tabachnick, B.G., Fidell, L.S., Using Multivariate Statistics. 2nd ed., New York: Harper & Row, 1989.
Taheri, M., SarirI, R., â€œMedicinal and pharmaceutical potentialities of tea (Camellia sinensis L.)â€, Pharmacol. 1, 487-505, 2011.
Wang, Y., Li, Q., Wang, Q., Li, Y., Ling, J., Liu, L., Chen, X., Bi, K., â€œSimultaneous determination of seven bioactive components in oolong tea Camellia sinensis: quality control by chemical composition and HPLC fingerprintsâ€, J. Agric. Food Chem. 60(1), 256-260, 2011.
Yang, T.T., Koo, M.W., â€œHypercholesterolemic effects of Chinese teaâ€, Pharmacol. Res. 35, 505-512, 1997.
Yashin, A.Y., Nemzer, B.V., Combet, E., Yashin, Y.I., â€œDetermination of the chemical composition of tea by chromatographic methods: a reviewâ€, J. Food Res. 4(3), 56-87, 2015.
How to Cite
- Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by any other publisher.
- It is also the authors responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular source are submitted with the necessary approval.
- The authors warrant that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required.
- The authors ensure that all the references carefully and they are accurate in the text as well as in the list of references (and vice versa).
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.