Breakfast Nutrient Analysis Among School Age Children in Jakarta Area, Indonesia
Keywords:breakfast, nutrient intake, Jakarta, school age children
AbstractBreakfast is considered as one of the most important meal within a day, specifically this is important among school age children due to the nutrients content. The goal of this study was to investigate nutrients provided by breakfast meal and to describe the type and amount of breakfast consumed among school age children in Jakarta, Indonesia. 2nd Indonesian National Basic Health Research Survey (RISKESDAS) data in a cross-sectional setting was analyzed. The main sample consisted of children age 6- to 12- year old randomly selected in Jakarta area (n = 945). A 24-hr dietary recall was used for evaluating the breakfast nutrient contribution to the total daily nutrient intake. Breakfast meal contributed higher proportion of nutrients intake in younger age, higher SES, and also in boys. In every demographic subgroup, breakfast meal contributed high amount of carbohydrate, ranging from 39.2% to 44.6%, high amount of fat, ranging from 35% to 49.6%, and very low fiber content ranging from 3.6% to 4.8%. Vitamin C was notably the least consumed micronutrient by this population in all different sub groups (0% to 1.3%), as well as calcium (3.0% to 8.4%). Breakfast among school age children in Jakarta mostly consisted of rice (25.9%) with fried foods as side dishes. Breakfast consumption significantly contributes to whole diet nutrient adequacy. Breakfast consumption in Jakarta should be more stimulated in lower SES, older age, and girls group. Moreover, due to inadequacy of micronutrient intake, consumption of more whole fruits and fruit products during breakfast should be encouraged along with fat free or low fat milk products. This might be encouraged through a more holistic program from related stakeholders, including family, food companies, school, as well as government.
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