Determinants of the Use of Soil Conservation Technologies by Smallholder Farmers: The Case of Hulet Eju Enesie District, East Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia
This study is examined the socio- economic, institutional and technical factors that determine the use of improved soil conservation technologies in East Gojjam Zone, Hulet Eju Enesie district. To address the objective of the study both primary and secondary data were collected. The primary data were collected from 120 sample households who are selected from 4 Peasant Associations (PAs) in Hult Eju Enesie district proportionately and randomly of which 118 sample households possessing 382 farm plots were used for the analysis. Two-limit Tobit model was used to estimate factors that affect the use of improved soil conservation technologies. In addition descriptive statistics were also used as deemed necessary. The results of this study indicated that educational level of the household head; extension contact; and slope of the plot positively and significantly affect farmers' conservation decision and the extent of use of improved soil conservation technologies. Whereas, distance of the plot from residence, livestock holding and fertility of farm plot affect negatively and significantly farmers' conservation decision and the extent of use of improved soil conservation technologies. Thus, the important recommendations which are found to be of paramount importance from the findings of this study include: strategies which focus on enhancing the willingness and /or ability of farmers should be adopted, strengthen learning opportunities through facilitating the establishment of farmers training center and their operation in rural areas of the administration, strengthen the extension contact between farmers and development agents and the need to providing farmers with information on long term impact of soil erosion on the present fertile plots.
. Adebabay, M. (2003) . Factors influncing adoption of soil conservation practices in South Gonder Zone: The Case of Farta District. M.Sc.Thesis Presented to the School of Graduate Studies of Alemaya University.102pp.
. Aklilu, A. & Jan de, G. (2006). Determinants of adoption and continued use of stone terraces for soil and water conservation in an Ethiopian highland watershed. Ecological Economics in Press, pp.69-83.
. Araya, B. & J.A., Adjaye (2001). Adoption of farm level soil conservation practices in Eritrea. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 56: 239 -252
. Aregay, W. (1979). Adoption and diffusion indices developed for analysis of data in the study of the Chilalo. Agricultural Development Sciences. 1(1):57-59.
. Asfaw, N., G. Kisan, M. Wilfered & Beyene, S. (1997). Factors affecting adoption of maize production technologies in Bako area, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Economics. (2): 52-73.
Ayalneh Bogale, (2002). Land degradation, impoverishment and livelihood strategies of rural households in Ethiopia: Farmersâ€™ perception and policy implications; PhD Dissertation Umboldt University, Berlin, Germany. pp.83-94.
. Baidu-Forson, P. (1999). Factors influencing the adoption of land enhancing technology in the Sahel. Lessons from a Case Study in Niger. The Journal of the International Association of Agricultural Economists, 20(3):231-239.
. Bayramin, I., O. Dengiz, O. Baskan & M. Parlak (2002). Soil erosion risk assessment with ICONA model; case study: Beypazari Area. Turk Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 27:221-229.
. Bekele, S. & S.T. Holden (1998). Resource degradation and adoption of land conserving technologies in the Ethiopian highlands: A case study in Andit-Tid, North Shewa: Agricultural Economics, The Journal of the International Association of Agricultural Economists, 18(3):233-247.
. Bekele, S. & S.T. Holden (1999). Soil erosion and small holdersâ€™ conservation decisions in the highlands of Ethiopia. World Development, 27(4):739-752.
. Bekele, W. & Drake, L. (2003). Soil and water conservation decision behavior of subsistence farmers in the eastern highlands of Ethiopia. A case study of the Hunde-Laffto area. Ecological Economics, 46: 437-451.
. Benine, S., J. Pender & S. Ehuis (2002). Policy for sustainable land management in the East African highlands: Summary papers and proceeding of a conference held at the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. April 24-26 2002. Socio-economic and policy research working papers 50. ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya pp.194
. Berhanu, G. & S. M. Swinton (2003). Investment in soil conservation in northern Ethiopia: the role of land tenure security and public programs. Agricultural Economics, 29: 69-84.
. Bishaw, B. (2001). Deforestation and land degradation in the Ethiopian highlands: A strategy for physical recovery. North east African Studies, 8(1): 325-358.
. Ervin, C. A. & D. E. Ervin (1982). . Factors affecting the use of conservation practices. hypothesis, evidence, and policy implications. Land Economics, 58(3): 97-307
. FAO (1979). A Provisional methodology for soil degradation assessment. FAO, Rome.
. FAO (2000). Management of degraded soils in Southern and East Africa, Rome:
. Feder, G., R.E. Just & D. Zilberman (1985). Adoption of agricultural innovations in developing countries. Economic Development and Cultural Change 33: 255-298.
. Girma, T. (2001). Land degradation: A challenge to Ethiopia. Journal of environmental management, 27 (6): 815-824.
. Gould, B.W., W.E. Saupe & R.M. Klemme (1989). Conservation tillage. The role of operator characteristics and perception of soil erosion. Land Economics, 65:167-182.
. Gujarati, D. (2003). Basic Econometrics. 4th edition, Published by Graw-Hill; Irwin.pp.614-618.
. Holden, S.T., Bekele, S. & J. Pender (2005). Policy analysis for sustainable land management and food security in Ethiopia. A bio-economic model with market imperfections research report 140. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC.
. Hurni, H. (1993). Land degradation, Famine and Resource Scenarios in Ethiopia. In Pemental d. (ed) World Soil Erosion and Conservation. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge U.K. pp.27-62.
. Lakew Desta, Menale Kassie, S. Benin, & J. Pender (2000). Land degradation and strategies for sustainable development in the Ethiopian highlands: Amhara Region. Socio-economic and policy research working paper 32. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya. pp. 122
. Lapar, M.L.A. & S. Pandey (1999). Adoption of soil conservation. The case of Philippine Uplands. Journal of the International Association of Agricultural Economists (IAAE), 20(3):241-256.
. Leonard, B. (2003). Land degradation in Ethiopia: Its extent and impact.Available at: http://lada.virtualcentre.org/eims/download.asp?pub_id=92120
. Lulseged, T. & L. G. V. Paul (2006). Soil Erosion Studies in Northern Ethiopia. Land use and soil resource. Copy writes 2006. pp. 73-100.
. Lynne, G. D., J.S. Shonkwiler, and L.R. Rola (1988). Attitudes and farmers conservation behavior. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 70:12-19.
. Maddala, G.S. (1992). Introduction to Econometrics. Second Edition. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York. pp.338-340.
. Mc. Donald, J. F. & R.A. Moffit (1980). The uses of tobit analysis. Review of Economics and Statistics, 62, 318-321.
. Million, T. (2001). Factors influencing the adoption of soil conservation measures in Wolaita Zone. The case of Gununo area. M.Sc.Thesis Presented to the School of Graduate Studies of Alemaya University. pp.88-97.
. Mulugeta, E. (1999). Determinants of adoption of physical soil conservation measures in central highlands of Ethiopia. The case of three districts of Selale. M.Sc.Thesis Presented to the School of Graduate Studies of Alemaya University.pp.65-69.
. Nigussie, H.& Fekadu Y. (2003). Testing and evaluation of the agricultural non-point source pollution model (AGNPS) on Augucho Catchmentâ€™s, Western Hararghe, Ethiopia. Agriultural ecosystem Environment, 99(1-3): 201-212.
. Nknoya, E., T. Schroder & D. Norman (1997). Factors influencing adoption of improved maize seed and fertilizer in Northern Tanzania. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 4:1-11.
. Paulos, A. (2002). Determinants of farmersâ€™ willing ness to pay for soil conservation practices in the highlands of Bale. The case of Dinsho farming system area. M.Sc.Thesis presented to the School of Graduate Studies of Alemaya University.pp.96-100.
. Pender, J. & Berhanu, G. (2004). Impact of policy and technologies in dry land agriculture: evidences from Northern Ethiopia. Crop Science Society of America and American Society of Agronomy, 677 S. Segoe Rd., Madison, WI 53711, USA. Challenges and strategies for dry land agriculture. CSSA special publication no.32. pp.389-416.
. Pender, J.& J.M. Keer (1997). Determinants of farmersâ€™ indigenous soil and water conservation investments in semi-arid India. Agricultural economics. The Journal of the International Association of Agricultural Economists (IAAE), 19. 35-46.
. Rosett, R.N. & F.D. Nelson (1975). Estimation of the two-limit probit regression model. Econometric, 43:141-146.
. Semgalawe, Z. M. (1998). Household adoption behaviors and agricultural sustainability in the northern mountains of Tanzania: The case of soil conservation in the North pares and West Usambara mountains. Published PhD Thesis, Wageningen University Wageningen, The Netherlands.
. Senait, R. (2005). Determinants of choice of land management practices: A case of Ankober District. Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural sciences, 18 (1):53-67.
. Sonneveld, B. G. J. S. (2002). Land under pressure: The impact of water erosion on food production in Ethiopia. Available at: Wiley. Inter Science. www.interscience.wiley.com
. Sonneveld, B. G. J. S. & M.A., Keyzer (2002). Land under Pressure; Soil conservation concerns and opportunities for Ethiopia in land degradation and development. Available at: Wiley. Inter Science. www.interscience.wiley.com.
. Tesfaye, B. (2003). Understanding Farmers: Explaining soil and water conservation in Konso, Wolaita and Wello; Ethiopia.Tropical Resource Management Papers, No.41.PhD Dissertation.Wageningn University,Netherlands.pp.65-92.
. USAID (2000). Amhara National Regional State food security research assessment report. Available at: http://crsps.org/amhara/amhara_rpt.pdf.
. Wagayehu, B. (2003). Economics of Soil and Water Conservation. Theory and empirical application to subsistence farming in the Eastern Ethiopia highlands: PhD Thesis; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Uppsala, 2003.
. Yitayal, A. (2004). Determinants of use of soil conservation measures by small holder farmers; in Gimma Zone, Dedo District. M.Sc.Thesis Presented to the School of Graduate Studies of Alemaya University.pp.65-82.
. Yohannes, G. M. (1999). The use, maintenance and development of soil and water conservation measures by small scale farming households in different agro-climatic zones of northern Showa and Wollo. Soil conservation research program, Ethiopia research report 44. Center for development, University of Agriculture, Ethiopia. 188p.
How to Cite
- Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by any other publisher.
- It is also the authors responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular source are submitted with the necessary approval.
- The authors warrant that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required.
- The authors ensure that all the references carefully and they are accurate in the text as well as in the list of references (and vice versa).
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.