Preliminary Study of the Characteristics of Injana Formation Clay Stone for Brick and Ceramic Industry

Azealdeen Salih Al-Jawadi, Salim Qassim Al-Naqib


The big problem that face the brick and ceramic industry in Northern Iraq is the lack of raw materials (washed clay) at the river banks. Many studies concluded to the high percent of carbonate in the clay stone of the geological formations in the area. The main attempt of the study was to find some treatment methods for clay stone belongs to beds among rock exposures in Northern Iraq to be used for brick and ceramic industry. This is depending primarily on the percent of CaCO3 in the rocks. It is found that some clay stone beds within Injana Formation show Low Percent of CaCO3 Clay stone (L.P.C.C.) compared with clay stone beds from Gercus and Fat’ha formations. Therefore, the work trend is shifted towards the study of their engineering properties and the effects of additives (crushed glass and sand) to its characteristics. Consequently, the study revealed that all the additives in general worsen some characteristics and improves others; otherwise, the natural sample without additives gives the best results. The natural samples have average values of 19 M Pa, which referring that the uniaxial compressive strength above the lowest value 16 M Pa according to Iraqi standards. The burned sample also shows 6.6% volume shrinkage without cracking or bloating, while the 21.6% low value of water absorption that falls within the Iraqi standards. The fluorescence is low; bulk density is 1.63 gm./cm3 and the tensile strength is 1.2 M Pa.


Clay stone, Injana Formation, North Iraq, Brick, Ceramic

Full Text:



AL- Awjar, E.K.Y., “Preparation and assessment of lightweight aggregates from local raw materials and study the effects of some additives”, M.Sc. Thesis, Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq, 110 p., 2008 (In Arabic).

Al-Kawaz, H.A. and Al-Dabbagh, S.M., “A Study on the Possibility of Manufacturing New Types of Pottery Blocks From Marl Sediments Within Fat`ha Formation (Middle Miocene) and Determination of Their Engineering, Geochemical and Mineralogical Characteristics” 2006, Al-Rafidain science Journal, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 47-61, 2006 (In Arabic).

Al-Jawadi, A.S.H., Al- Naqib, S.Q., and Thanoon, A.T., “The suitability of some clay stones of the geological formations and their uses in the industry”, D.W.R.R.C., Mosul University, 2007 (In Arabic).

Reeves, G.M., Sims, I. and Cripps, J.C. (eds), “Clay Materials Used in Construction”, Geological Society, London, Engineering Geology Special Publication, 21, 580 p., 2006.

Vekey, R.C., “Brickwork and blockwork”, In: Illston JM (ed) Construction materials-their nature and behaviour. E & FN SPON, London, pp. 251–315, 1998.

Banhidi, V., “Enhancement of insulating properties of brick clay by renewable agricultural wastes”, Processing and Application of Ceramics, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 75-79, 2008.

Demir, I., Baspinar, M.S. and Orhan, M., “Utilization of kraft pulp production residues in clay brick production”, Building and environment, Vol. 40, pp.1533-1537, 2005.

Demir, I., “An investigation on the production of construction brick with processed waste tea”, Building and environment, Vol. 41, pp. 1274-1278, 2006.

Gennaro, R., Cappelletti, P., Gerri, G., Gennaro, M., Dondi, M. and Langella, A., “Zeolitic tuffs as raw materials for lightweight aggregates”, Applied clay science, Vol. 25, pp.71-81, 2004.

Ibanga, E.J. and Ahmed, A.D. “Influence of Particle Size and Firing Temperature on Burnt Properties of Rice/Clay Mix”, The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2007.

Shakir, A.A. and Mohammed, A.A., “Manufacturing of Bricks in the Past, in the Present and in the Future: A state of the Art Review”, International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences (IJAAS), Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 145-156, 2013.

Andrade, F.A., Al-Qureshi, H.A. and Hotza, D., “Measuring the plasticity of clays: A review”, Applied Clay Science, Vol. 51, pp. 1-7, 2011.

Van Bellen, R.C., Dunnington, H.V., Wetzel, R. and Morton, D., “Lexique stratigraphique international”, 03 10 Asie, Iraq, 333 p., 1959.

Vieira, C.M.F., Pecanha, L.A. and Monteiro, S.N., “Effect of kaolinitic clays from the State of Rio de Janeiro in the composition of whiteware floor tile bodies”, Ceramica, Vol.52, pp. 138-145., 2006.

Fernandes, F.M., Lourenço, P.B. and Castro, F., Ancient Clay Bricks: Manufacture and Properties, In: M. Bostenaru Dan et al. (eds.), Materials, Technologies and Practice in Historic Heritage Structures, DOI 10.1007/978-90-481-2684-2-3 , Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2009.

ASTM D422-63, “Standard Methods for Particle Size- Analysis of Soils”, ASTM International, 2003.

Vieira, C.M.F., Silva,P.R.N., Silva,F.T., Capitaneo,J.L. and Monteiro, S.N., “Microstructural evaluation and properties of a ceramic body for extruded floor tile”, Revista Materia, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 526-536, 2005.

Karaman, S., Gunal,H. and Ersahin,S., “Assesment of clay bricks compressive strength using quantitative values of colour components”, Construction and building materials, Vol. 20, pp. 348-354, 2006.

Bain, J.A., “Scientific Method in the Laboratory Assessment of Industrial Materials”, 1st Industrial Mineral Congress, London, 1974.

I.Q.S. 25, “Clay building brick”, I.C.O.S.Q.C., Baghdad, Iraq, 1988 (In Arabic).

Maharaj, R., Maharaj, C., White, D., Penjilia, C. and Ramlagan, S., “Optimization of ingredients for clay block manufacture unfired characteristics”, Trends in Applied Sciences Research 9(10), pp. 574-587, 2014.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.