Pituitary FSHβ and GH and Ovarian GH-r, IGF-1 and IGF-2 Gene Expression Levels in Cycling Female Rats Immunized against Steroid-Free Bovine Follicular Fluid Antisera

Jabbar Abbas Ahmed Al-Sa'aidi, Ennas Mohammad Majhwol


To examine the comparative effects of inhibin-free and/or steroid-free bovine follicular fluid antisera; IS-FBFF or S-FBFF, at proestrus or metestrus, on pituitary FSHβ and GH as well as ovarian GH-r, IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression levels, fifty cycling virgin female rats were randomly assigned equally to control and four treated group. Control females were intraperitonealy injected with 100 µl of normal saline at proestrus, whereas treated were intraperitonealy injected with 100 µl of S-FBFF at proestrus (T1), IS-FBFF at metestrus (T2), S-FBFF at metestrus (T3), and IS-FBFF at metestrus (T4). At the end of proestrus, females were euthanized; pituitaries and ovaries were dissected for assessment pituitary FSHβ and GH, as well as ovarian GH-r, IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression levels. The results illustrated significant increase of the expression levels of all studied genes in T3 group than others, whereas T4 group recorded the lowest levels among experimental groups. In T1 group, significant decrease has been shown for the expression levels of pituitary FSHβ and ovarian IGF-2 genes, and significant decrease of pituitary GH and ovarian IGF-1 genes, whereas T2 group recorded significant decrease of pituitary FSHβ and GH and ovarian IGF-2 genes and significant increase of IGF-1 gene expression in comparison with control. It can be concluded that immunization against S-FBFF could increase the expression levels that related to ovarian growth and proliferation.


Pituitary, Follicular fluid, FSHβ gene, GH, IGFs, inhibin, activin

Full Text:



Kumanov P, Kalyana C, Nandipati K, Tomova A, Robeva R, and Agarwal A. (2005). Significance of inhibin in reproductive pathophysiology and current clinical applications, Review. RBM Online, 10(6): 786-796. Reproductive BioMedicine Online: www.rbmonline.com/Article/1704.

Findlay JK. (1993). An update on the roles of inhibin, activin, and follistatin as local regulators of folliculogenesis. Biol. Reprod., 48: 15–23.

Ishigame H, Medan MS, Wang H, Watanabe G, Kishi H, and Arai KY, (2005). Induction of superovulation by immunoneutralization of endogenous inhibin in immature rats. J. Reprod. Dev., 51: 559-566.

Ishigma H, Medan MS, Watanabe G, Shi Z, Kishi H, and Arai KY. (2004). A new alternative method for superovulation using passive immunization against inhibin in adult rats. Biol. Reprod., 71: 236-243.

Al-Sa’aidi JAA, and Samir MS. (2010). Effect of passive immunization against inhibin alpha subunit on ovarian growth and development in immature female Wister rats. 14th Scientific Congress of Fac. Med. Assiut Univ. Egypt.

Al-Sa’aidi JAA, Mohammed BI, and Al-Greer MAR. (2013). Role of neonatal inhibin-α immunoneutralization on pituitary and gonadal physiology during pre- and post-pubertal stages of male rat life. Kufa Med. J., 16(2): 88-96.

Al-Shwilly HAJ. (2016). Effect of passive immunoneutralization against endogenous inhibin on reproductive fecundity in virgin female rats and its application in Iraqi awassi ewe lambs. PhD thesis, University of Baghdad, Collage of Veterinary Medicine, Dept. Physiology and Pharmacology.

Al-Sa'aidi JAA, Al-Okaily BN, and Al-Shwilly HAJ. (2016). Uterine implantations and litter size alteration in anti-inhibin and eCG-hCG treated virgin pregnant female rats. Online Intern. Interdiscip. Res. J., 6(1): 36-46.

Al-Obaiydi SAR, Bindon BM, Hillard MA, and O'shea T. (1987). Reproductive characteristics of lambs actively immunized early in life with inhibin-enriched preparations from follicular fluid of cows. J. Reprod. Fertil., 81: 403-414.

Miller KF, Critzer JK, and Ginther OJ. (1982): Inhibin and subsequent rebound of FSH secretion following treatment with bovine follicular fluid in the ewe. Therio., 18: 45-52.

Wang G, and Hardy MP. (2004). Development of leydig cells in the insulin- ike growth factor-I (igf-I) knockout mouse: effects of igf-I replacement and gonadotropic stimulation. Biol. Reprod., 70: 632–639.

Thompson TB, Woodruff TK., and Jardetzky TS. (2003). Structure of an ActRIIB: Activin A complex reveal a novel binding mode for TGF-beta ligand: receptor interactions. EMBOJ. 22: 1555–1566.

Harrison GS, Wierman ME, Nett TM, and Glode LM. (2004). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and its receptor in normal and malignant cells. Endocr. Relat. Cancer, 11: 725–748.

Al-Sa'aidi JAA, and Al-Jayashi GSM. (2016). Adenohypophyseal immunohistochemical expression levels of FSHβ in cyclic virgin female rats treated with steroid free bovine follicular fluid antiserum. Online Intern. Interdiscip. Res. J., 6: 18-31.

Al-Sa'aidi JAA, and Thanoon HB. (2014). Hypothalamic GHRH and pituitary GH gene expression levels in neonatal inibin immunoneutralized female rats. Aspire, The 5th Congress of the Asia Pacific Initiative on Reproduction, 4-6 April 2014, Brisbane, Australia, FC 016, pp: 64.

Mather JP, Moore A, and Li RH. (1997) Activins, inhibins, and follistatins: further thoughts on a growing family of regulators. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 215: 209–222.

Nashimoto H, Hamano S, Hill GA, Miyamoto A, and Tetsuka M. (2009). Classification of bovine follicles based on the concentrations of steroids, glucose and lactate in follicular fluid and the status of accompanying follicles. J Reprod. Dev., 55(2): 219-224.

Alvarezi RH, Arcaro JRP, Ribela MTCP, and Perone CN. (1998). Effect of charcoal-treated bovine follicular fluid on the secretion of FSH in ovariectomized and intact prepubertal heifers. Braz. J. Vet. Res. & Anim. Sci., 35(5): 215-217.

Melamed P. (2010). Hormonal signaling to follicle stimulation hormone β-subunit gene expression. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol., 314: 202-212.

Ginther OJ, Bergfelt DR, Kulick LJ, and Kot K. (2000). Selection of the dominant follicle in cattle: role of two-way functional coupling between follicle stimulating hormone and the follicles. Biol. Reprod., 62(4): 920-927.

Messinis IE, Vanakara P, Zavos A, Verikouki C, Georgoulias P, and Dafopoulos K. (2010). Failure of the GnRH antagonist ganirelix to block the positive feedback effect of exogenous estrogen in normal women. Fert. Steril., 94(4): 1554-56.

Beshay VE, and Carr BR. (2013). Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis and Control of the Menstrual Cycle. T. Falcone and W.W. Hurd (eds.), Clinical Reproductive Medicine and Surgery: A Practical Guide, Springer Science and Business Media, New York. Ch. 2, p: 31-42.

Daughaday WH, and Rotwein P. (1989). Insulin-like growth factors I and II: peptide, messenger ribonucleic acid and gene structures, serum, and tissue concentrations. Endocr. Rev., 10: 68-91.

Zhao YC, Jones RL, Salamonsen LA, Ethier JF, Drummond AE, and Findlay JK. (2002) Expression of activin receptors, follistatin and betaglycan by human endometrial stromal cells; consistent with a role for activin during decidualization. Mol. Hum. Reprod., 8: 363–374.

Abdulla WS. (2013): Sequential postnatal Evolution of mRNA expression level of pituitary gonadal and extragonadal GnRH-r, IGF-1, IGF-2 genes in inhibin-passive immunized female rats. MSc Thesis,Vet. Med., Al-Qadesiya University, IRAQ.

Thanoon HB. (2013): Hypothalamic GHRH and pituitary GH genes expression levels in sequential neonatal inhibin immunineutralized female rats. MSc Thesis, Collage of Vet. Med., Al-Qadesiya Universitu, IRAQ.

Eckery DC, Moeller CL, Nett TM, and Sawyer HR. (1997). Localization and quantification of binding sites for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor I in sheep ovarian follicles. Biol. Reprod., 57: 507–513.

Thomas MJ, Kikuchi K, Bichell DP, and Rotwein P. (1994). Rapid activation of rat insulin-like growth factor-I gene transcription by growth hormone reveals no alterations in deoxyribonucleic acidprotein interactions within the major promoter. Endocrinol., 135: 1584–1592.

Tamura N, Irahara M, Kuwahara A, Ushigoe K, Sugino H, and Aono T. (2000). Effect of activin on production and secretion of prolactin and growth hormone in cultured rat GH cells. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 142(5): 506-517.

Adamo ML, Neuenschwander S, LeRoith D, and Roberts JrCT. (1993). Structure, expression and regulation of the IGF-I gene. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol,, 343: 1-11.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24203/ajas.v5i4.4930


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.