Evaluation of Akaibiri Creek Sand at Akaibiri Town and Environments, Central Niger Delta, Nigeria, for Industrial Applications

Napoleon Wessey, Davidson Egirani


The colours of fifteen shallow dept non-weathered field samples of Akaibiri creek sand at Akaibiri Town and environments collected for physical and chemical properties investigation in the laboratory using BS:2975: 1958/1988 standards specifications were bright yellow, brown, reddish-brown, white and dark grey. The physical sieve grade size distribution was 2mm(3.0%), 1mm(6.11%), 500µm(13.88%), 300µm(54.25%), 180µm(9.33%), l06µm(7.14%), 63µm(2.87%), and <63µm(1.37%). The grade size analysis result indicated that the sand was of medium grade. The physical properties combined with a moisture content of 7.3% presented the sand as a material suitable for use in the construction, transport, building, refractory and sanitary industries as aggregates, but not for any type of glassmaking except processed for use in making general glass. The X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis Geochemical composition was SiO2(92.50%), CaO(0.355%), MnO(0.018%), Fe2O3(1.00%), TiO2(0.91%), Na2O(0.09%), K2O(2.26%) and L. O. I.(0.35%). This composition is representative of the sand. The most important industrial use determining elements in the sand were the Silica (Si), Iron (Fe), K2O (K) and Titanium (Ti). The Silica (SiO2) content of 92.50%, was low and the sand cannot be used as it is, for glass making. The iron (Fe2O3) content (1.00%), Ti (0.91%), K (2.26% ), Na (0.09%) and even the L.O.I (0.35%)  were too high for making any type of glass. The sand was generally not suitable for glass making particularly, o f colourless glass based on the geochemical properties and loss on ignition.  The non-detection of Alumina (Al) in the sand suggests its suitability for use in the manufacture of common glass and the presence of high content of  colouring agents Ti and Fe suggests the  suitability for coloured glass making. The contents of Si and K, (92.50% and 2.26%) respectively and the non detection of Al, can make the sand also suitable for use in the refractory and sanitaryware industries. 


Akaibiri Town, Akaibiri creek, sand, physical properties, geochemical properties, aggregates, glass. Industrial Applications

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.24203/ajas.v5i4.4789


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