Impact of Rute chalepensis Ethanol Extract in Ochratoxin Treated Male Rats: A Biochemical and Histopathological Study

Ruaa Majid Khazaal

Abstract


The objective of this study was to explore the ameliorating effects of Ruta chalepensis ethanol extract on some serum biochemical markers such as, alanine aminotransferase; ALT, aspartate aminotransferase; AST, urea and creatinine concentrations, and histopathological changes in liver and kidney tissues of Ochratoxin treated male rats. Fifty adult male rats were randomly allocated in five equal groups. Male rats were daily administered, for 42 days, with drinking water (negative control; G1), whereas other groups were orally administered with single dose of Ochratoxin (1 mg/kg, bw). G2 was untreated and served as positive control, while G3, G4 and G5 groups were daily treated, for 42 days, with 200, 300 and 450 mg/kg bw, of Ruta chalepensis ethanol extract, respectively.Fasting blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture at the end of the experiment, for assessment of serum ALT, AST, urea, total protein, and creatinine concentrations. Samples from livers and kidneys were taken for histopathological examination. In spite of the deviations of serum ALT, AST, urea, creatinine and total protein concentrations due to deleterious effect of Ochratoxin (G2 group) compared with control (G1), treated of male rats with Ruta chalepensis ethanol extract (G3, G4, and G5) returned them to nearly normal range. These results were in compatible with the regenerating effect of Ruta chalepensis ethanol extract which have been seen in liver and kidney tissues, where they showed necrotic and degenerative changes due to Ochratoxin toxicity. In conclusion, Ruta chalepensis ethanol extract has an efficient role as antitoxin and/or antioxidant agent.

Keywords


Ochratoxin, Ruta chalepensis, ALT, AST, urea, creatinine, liver, kidney

Full Text:

PDF

References


Iauk L., Mangano K., Rapisarda A., Ragusa S., Maiolino L., Musumeci R., Costanzo R., Serra A., 2004: Berberis aetnensis C. persl. Extracts: antimicrobial properties and interaction with ciprofloxacin. J. Ethno pharmacology., , 90, 267-272.

Zeichen R., Rey A., Arganara E., Bindstein E. 2000.: Perinatal toxicology of Ruta chalepensis (Rutaceae) in mice. J. Ethno pharmacology, 69(2), 93-8.

Arenas P., G.P. Savitry. 1994 La ruda: Ruta chalepensis (L.) Rutaceae. Dominguezia. 11:7–25.

AlSaid M.S., Tariq M., AlYahya M.A., Rafatullah S., Ginnawi O.T., Ageel A.M. 1990.: The role of ethno pharmacology in drug development. J. Ethno pharmacology, 28,305-312.

Cabrera A., and Zardini E. 1978. Manual de la flora de los Alrededores de Beunos Aires (Ed) Acme Buenos Aires, Argentina, , p. 234.

Trease G.E. and Evans W.Ch. 1980. Pharmacognosy, Baillière Tindal Press, London, , p. 488.

Günaydin K. and Savci S. 2005. Phytochemical studies on Ruta chalepensİs (LAM.) lamarck Nat. Prod. Res., , 19, 203-210.

Ulubelen, A., B. Terem, E. Tuzlaci, K. F. Cheng, and Y. C. Kong. 1986. Alkaloids and coumarins from Ruta chalepensis. Phytochemistry 25: 2692 2693.

Ulubelen, A. and H. Guner. 1988. Isolation of dehydromoskachan C from Ruta chalepensis var. Latifolia. J. Nat. Prod. 51: 1012-1013.

Mohr N., Budzikiewicz H., EI-Tawil B. A. H. and EI-Beih F. K. A., 1982. Further furoquinolone alkaloids from Ruta chalepensis. Phytochemistry, ,21 (7), 1838-1839.

Hnatyszyn O,. Arenas P., Moreno A.R., Rondina R., Coussio J.D. 1974. Plantas Revista de la Sociedad Cientifica, , p. 23.

Di-Stasi L.C., Hiruma C.A., Guimaraes C.M. 1994. Medical plants popularly used in Brazilian Amazon. Fitoterapia, , 65, 529–540.

Atta A. H., Alkofahi A. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of some Jordanian medicinal plant extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1998;60(2):117–124.

Calzada F., YépezMulia L., Aguilar A. 2006.: In vitro susceptibility of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia to plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.. J. Ethno pharmacology, , 108, 367-370.

Ali-Shtayeh M.S., Abu-Ghdeib S.I. 1999.: Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes. Mycoses, , 42, 665-672.

Ulubenlen A., Ertugrul L., Birman H., Yigit R., Erseven G., Olgac V. 1993.: Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes. Phytotherapy Res., 8, 233-236.

Aguilar-Santamaria, L. and Tortoriello, J. Anticonvulsant and sedative effects of crude extracts of Ternstroemia pringlei and Ruta chalepensis. Phytotherapy Research 1996; 10: 531–533.

Rustaiyan A, Khossravi M, Sultani-Lotfabadi F, Yari M, Masoudi S, Monfared A (2002). Constituents of the essential oil of Ruta chalepensis L. from Iran. J. Essent. Oil Res., 14: 378-379.

Tzakou O.*, Couladis M. 2001. The essential oil of Micromeria graeca (L.) Bentham et Reichenb. growing in Greece. Flav. Fragr. J., 16, 107-109.

Baser, K.H.C., T. Ozek and S.H. Beis, 1996. Constituents of the essential oil of Ruta chalepensis L. from Turkey. J. Essent. Oil Res.,8: 413-414.

Bagchi G.D. Dwivedi P.D., Mandal S., Naqvi A.A., Kumar S. 2003.: Essential oil constituents of Ruta chalepensis plants grown in India . Indian Perfumer, 47, 39-41.

Bagchi, G.D., P.D. Dwivedi, A. Singh, F. Haider and A.A. Naqvi, 2003. Variations in essential oil constituents at different growth stages of Ruta chalepensis on cultivation at north Indian plains. J. Essent. Oil Res., 15: 263-264.

Food and Agricultural Materials Inspection Center, Association of Feed Analysis Methods.2009. Methods of Analysis in Feeds and Feed Additives.

Japanese Society for Food Hygiene and Safety. 2010. Encyclopedia of Food Safety.

Braunberg R.C. et al. 1994: Nat. Toxins, 2, 124.

Harborne 1999. Phytochemical dictionary: Handbook of bioactive compounds from plants 2nd (Ed).

Laessig R.H. Westgard, J.O. and Carey R.N.1976. Assessment of a serum separator device for obtaining serum specimens suitable for clinical analyses. Clin Chem. 22:235–239.

Luna L.G. 1968. Manual of histologic staining methods for the armed force institute of Toronto, London, pathology 3rd . Mc Graw Hill book Company , NY, 12-31.

Keeper-Goodman T. and Scott P.M. 1989 :Risk assessment of the mycotoxin Ochratoxin. Biomed. Environ. Sci. ;2:179–248.

Baerts M. and Lehmann J. 2010. Ruta chalepensis. [Internet] Prelude Medicinal Plants Database. Metafro-Infosys, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium http://www.metafro.be/prelude. Accessed August 2010.

Gedif T. and Hahn H.J. 2003. The use of medicinal plants in self-care in rural central Ethiopia. Journal of Ethno pharmacology 87: 155–161.

Kloos H. Tekle A. Yohannes L. Yosef, A. & Lemma A. 1978. Preliminary studies of traditional medicinal plants in nineteen markets in Ethiopia: use patterns and public health aspects. Ethiopian Medical Journal 16: 33–43.

Van Wyk B.E. Van Oudtshoorn B. Gericke N. 1997. Medicinal plants of South Africa. Briza Publications, Pretoria, South Africa. 304 pp.

Yineger H. Kelbessa E. Bekele T. Lulekal E. 2007. Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants at Bale Mountains national park, Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 112: 55–70.

Enis Ben Bnina a, Saoussen Hammami a, Majda Daamii-remadi b, Hichem Ben Jannet, Zine Mighri a (2010):Chemical Composition And Antimicrobial Effects Of Tunisian Ruta Chalepensis L. Essential Oils, Journal de la Société Chimique de Tunisie,1-9.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24203/ajas.v5i3.4763

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.