Physicochemical Properties of Starches from Three Nigerian Commercial Varieties of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata) in Comparison with Three Hybrid Types

Kehinde O. Soetan, Michael A. Falola, Louis M. Nwokocha

Abstract


Starch isolated from three Nigerian commercial cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) varieties: Drum, Oloyin (sugary), Sokoto, and three hybrid types: ART 98-12, Ife BPC and Ife brown were characterized in terms of x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, chemical composition, amylose content, swelling power and amylose leaching, RVA paste characteristics, paste clarity and freeze-thawing stability. The starches exhibited A-type diffraction pattern with granule size range 4.71-58.82μm. The starches contained 28.68-35.15% amylose and exhibited high pasting temperatures, restricted swelling and amylose leaching, low paste clarity and poor freeze-thaw stability. The hybrid types showed improved pasting and gel properties for food exploitation.


Keywords


Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), starch, physicochemical properties, x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy

Full Text:

PDF

References


. Singh, B.B., Mohan, D.R., Dashiell, K.E., & Jackai, L.E.N. (1997). Advances in Cowpea Research, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria.

. Inaizumi, H., Singh, B.B., Sanginga, P.C., Manyong, V., Adesina, A.A., & Tarawali, S. (1999). Adoption and impact of dry-season dual-purpose cowpea in the semiarid zone of Nigeria (pp. 16). IITA publications. IITA and Meg-Comm Network.

. Dugje, Y., Omoigui, L.O., Ekelem, F., Kamara, A.Y., & Ajeigbe, H. (2009). Farmers’ Guide to Cowpea Production in West Africa (pp. 1). International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria.

. Rachie, K.O. (1985). Introduction in: eds. S.R Singh and K.O. Rachie, Cowpea research, production and utilization. (pp. xxi- xxviii), Wiley, New York.

. Nielsen, S., Ohler, T., & Mitchell, C. (1997). Cowpea leaves for human consumption: production, utilization, and nutrient composition. In: Singh, B., Mohan Raj, D., Dashiell, K., Jackai, L. (eds) Advances in cowpea research. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCASS), pp 326-332. Ibadan, Nigeria.

. Hamid, S., Muzzafar, S., Wani, I.A., Masoodi, F.A. & Yildiz, F. (2015). Physicochemical and functional properties of two cowpea cultivars grown in temperate Indian climate. Cogent Food & Agriculture 1: 1.

. Henshaw, F.O. (2008). Varietal differences in physical characteristics and proximate composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 4 (3): 302-306.

. Cabezas, M.T., Garcia, J., Murillo, B., Elias, I.G., Bressani, R. (1982). Nutritive value of raw and processed cowpeas. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 32 (3): 543-558.

. Ashogbon, A.O. & Akintayo, E.T. (2013). Isolation and characterization of starches from two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivars. International Food Research Journal 20 (6): 3093-3100

. Alcázar-Alay, S.C. & Meireles, M.A.A. (2015). Physicochemical properties, modifications and applications of starches from different botanical sources. Food Science and Technology (Campinas) 35 (2): 215-236.

. Juliano, B.O., Villareal, R.M. & Baños, L. (1987). Varietal differences in physicochemical properties of waxy rice starch. Starch/Stärke 39: 298–301.

. Schoch, T.J. & Maywald, E.C. (1968). Preparation and properties of various legume starches. Cereal Chemistry 45: 564–573.

. Nwokocha, L.M., Soetan, K.O., & Williams, P.A. (2010). A study of the properties of starch isolated from three varieties of Lablab purpureus seeds. Carbohydrate Polymers 79: 685–693.

. AOAC (2000). Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) International (Official Method 923.03, 923.05, 962.09, 979.09.), William, H. (Ed). 17th ed., Gaithersburg, MD, USA.

. Stevenson, D.G., Doorenbos, R.S., Jane, J. & Inglett, G.E. (2006). Structures and functional properties of starch from seeds of three soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) varieties. Starch/Starke 58: 509–519.

. Singhal, R.S. & Kulkarni, P.R. (1990). Some properties of Amaranthus paniculatas (Rajgeera) starch pastes. Starch/Starke 42 (1): 5–7.

. Lawal, O.S. (2008). Hydroxypropylation of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) starch: Preparation, functional characterizations and enzymatic digestibility. IC/2008/ 031. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and International Atomic Energy Agency. The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics. Available from: http://publications.ictp.it.

. Fukai, Y., Takaki, E., & Kobayashi, S. (1994). Changes in three kinds of starch granules after enzyme treatment. Journal of Agricultural Chemical Society of Japan. 68: 793–800.

. Tang, H., Watanabe, K., & Mitsunaga, T. (2002). Structure and functionality of large, medium and small granule starches in normal and waxy barley endosperms. Carbohydrate Polymers 49 (2): 217–224.

. Hoover, R., Li, Y.X., Hynes, G., & Senanayake, N. (1997). Physicochemical characterization of mung bean starch. Food Hydrocolloids. 11 (4): 401–408.

. Vanier, N.l., Zavareze, E.R., Pinto, V.Z., Klien, B., Botelho, F.C., Dias, A.R.G. & Elias, M.C. (2012). Physicochemical, crystallinity, pasting and morphological properties of bean starch oxidised by different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite, Food Chemistry 131 (4): 1255-1262,

. Shimelis, E., Meaza, M., & Rakshit, S. (2006). Physicochemical properties, pasting behavior and functional characteristics of flours and starches from improved bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties grown in East Africa. Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal. Manuscript FP 05 015. Vol. VIII.

. Lii, C.Y. & Chang, S.M. (1981). Characterization of red bean (Phaseolus radiatus var.aurea) starch and its noodle quality. Journal of Food Science, 46: 78-81.

. Galvez, F.C.F. & Resurreccion, A.V.A. (1993). The effects of decortication and method of extraction on the physical and chemical properties of starch from mung bean (Vigna radiate (L.) wilczec). Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 17: 93-107.

. Arora, S.K. & Das, B. (1976). Cowpea as potential crop for starch. Starch/Stärke 28: 158–160.

. Lai, C.C. & Varriano-Marston, E. (1979). Studies on the characteristics of black bean starch. Journal of Food Science 44 (2): 528–530.

. El Tinay, A.H., El Hardalou, S.B., & Nour, A.M. (1983). Comparative study of three legume starches. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 18 (1): 1–9.

. Wickramasinghe, H.A.M. & Noda, T. (2008). Physicochemical properties of starches from Sri Lankan rice varieties. Food Science and Technology Research 14 (1): 49–54.

. Lindeboom, N., Chang, P.R., & Tyler, R.T. (2004). Analytical, biochemical and physicochemical aspects of starch granule size, with emphasis on small granule starches: A review. Starch/Starke 56: 89–99.

. Noranizan, M.A., Dzulkifly, M.H. & Russly, A.R.( 2010). Effect of heat treatment on the physico-chemical properties of starch from different botanical sources. International Food Research Journal 17: 127-135

. Craig, S.A.S., Maningat, C.C., Seib, P.A. & Hoseney, R.C. (1989). Starch paste clarity. Cereal Chem. 66(3): 173-182.

. Takeiti, C., Fakhouri, F., Ormenese, R.,Steel, C. & Collares, F. (2007). Freeze-thaw stability of gels prepared from starches of non-conventional sources. Starch/Starke 5 (3-4): 156–160.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24203/ajas.v5i3.4669

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.