Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity Assessments of Batik Industrial Wastewater on V79 Cells

Normah Awang, Siti Nur Farahin Ahlam, Kok Meng Chan


Batik is well known in Malaysian textile industry. It is one of the the rapidly growing industries inherited from a generation to another. The manufacturer of batik industry usually discharges the wastewater containing hazardous pollutants (a mixture of chemicals especially reactive dyes, waxes, alum, resin, and sodium silicate) into the environment without any preliminary treatment. This study was conducted to assess the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of batik industrial wastewater in three drums of wastewater on V79 cells as a preliminary study for a toxicity testing. The physicochemical properties of the wastewater were assessed. The cytotoxicity was assessed by using MTT assay using alkaline comet assay to evaluate the genotoxicity of the wastewater. This study found that the wastewater from all the three drums demonstrated a cytotoxic effect towards V79 cells at various concentrations, and drum A showed lower IC50 value compared to drum B and C. The IC50 in drum A are 8.8%, 8.0%, and 8.4% v/v for December 2014, January 2015 and February 2015 respectively. Meanwhile, for genotoxicitystudy of the wastewater samples on V79 cells, the study found that the value of tail moment (TM) for the all samples were lower than 2 score, with the highest is 1.842 ± 0.150, while the results for the negative and positive controls were 6.5 ± 1.079 and 0.436 ± 0.012, respectively. In conclusion, the wastewater from all three the drums in this study had a cytotoxic effect but did not demostrate a genotoxic effect on V79 cells, indicating no DNA damage inflicted.


batik wastewater, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, V79 cells

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